Kusvibiswa kwemhepo uye nhamba dze "call for help".

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kuwedzera kuchinja hupenyu hwevanhu. Indekisi yeAIQ iri kuwedzera, ichiisa dzvinyiriro huru munyika zhinji pasi rose uye inoda kubatanidzwa kwepasi rose. 

Mazuvano data pamusoro pekusvibiswa kwemhepo mamiriro 

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo nderimwe rematambudziko makuru pasi rose ehutano nemhoteredzo. Nguva dzose kutora pfungwa huru kubva munharaunda. Inogona kukura mumamiriro maviri: indoor (mumba) kusvibiswa kwemhepo uye kunze kwemhepo kusvibiswa. 

Izvo, kusvibiswa kwekunze kwemhepo - kunokonzera kufa kwemamiriyoni 3,4 gore rega rega, uye ndeimwe yematambudziko makuru ehutano munyika. Uye kusvibiswa kwemhepo mukati - idambudziko guru rehutano. Kunyanya kumhuri dzinotambura dzine mari shoma.

Mamiriro ekusvibiswa kwetsvina ari padanho rinokatyamadza nekuramba kuchiwedzera kwezviratidzo zvisina kunaka. 

 Detailed data munyika

Kusvika pari zvino, zvikamu zviviri muzvitatu zvepasi rose zviri kutambura nemhedzisiro yakaipa yekusvibiswa kwemhepo. 

Iyo PM2.5 fine dust ratio indekisi inomiririra kuratidzwa kwehuwandu hwevanhu mukusvibiswa kwehuwandu hwenyika. Nehuwandu hwezvimedu zvakaturikwa zvine madhayamita aerodynamic asingasviki 2,5 microns. Matanho ekuratidzwa akayerwa nekuyera avhareji yegore negore yePM2.5 yehuwandu mumaguta nemaruwa.

Munyika, mwero wePM2.5 guruva rakatsetseka riri pamusoro pe35 µg/m3 yegasi riri kuramba richiwedzera. Imo, mwero wepamusoro unonyanya kugoverwa muAsia, Middle East uye Africa. Nekuda kwekumanikidzwa kwevanhu. 

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo - kusanganiswa kwezvinhu zvekunze uye zvemukati, uye ozone. Sechikonzero chengozi kune dzakawanda zvinotungamira zvikonzero zvekufa. Zvinokonzera zvirwere zvemoyo, sitiroko, zvirwere zvepazasi zvekufema. Kenza yemapapu, chirwere cheshuga uye chisingaperi chinodzivirira pulmonary chirwere (COPD).

Kufa kwehuwandu
Nhamba yekufa nekuda kwekusvibiswa kwemhepo iri kuramba ichiwedzera

Kusvibiswa kwekunze kunokonzera kufa kwemamiriyoni mashanu pagore maererano nenhamba muna 5. Pakati pavo nhamba yevakafa munyika dzine mari yakawanda i2017%. Uye inenge 2% munyika dzakawanda dzeSoutheast Asia neSouth Asia. Pakazosvika 15 huwandu hwepagore hwevakafa nekuda kwemamiriro akange awedzera kusvika pamamirioni manomwe. MuWestern Pacific moga, nhamba iyi yakawedzera kusvika kumamiriyoni 2018 evanhu vanofa gore negore. Paavhareji, vanhu 7 mugumi vari munyika vanofema mweya wakasviba. 

Kusvibiswa kwepakati pemhuri kunokanganisa hutano hwevanhu vanopfuura mabhiriyoni matatu gore negore. Pane ava, pane 3 miriyoni vakafa (maererano ne4.2 statistics). 

Kunze kwezvo, kusvibiswa kunowedzerawo mutoro wezvirwere munyika. Mutoro wepasi rose wezvirwere hautarisi chete huwandu hwemakore ehupenyu hwakarasika nekuda kwekufa kusati kwasvika, asiwo huwandu hwemakore aigara muhutano husina kunaka. Vanhu vanodarika mamiriyoni gumi nemana vakabatwa nedambudziko iri muna 14.

Mazuvano manhamba muVietnam

MuVietnam, kusvibiswa kwemhepo kuri kuwedzera. Nekuonekwa kwezviitiko zvakawanda zvakashata izvo zvakaoma kudzora. Zvinoenderana nenhamba muna 2018, Vietnam ine avhareji ye60 kufa pagore kubva kuzvirwere zvine chekuita nekusvibiswa kwemhepo. 

Muna 2016, avhareji AIQ index muHanoi yaive zana nemakumi maviri nerimwe ine PM121 ye2.5. Uku kusungirirwa kwakapetwa kaviri chiyero chenyika (50.5 µg/m25) uye kashanu kurudziro yeWHO (3 µg/m5). Munguva kubva ku10 kusvika ku3 iyi index yakawedzera kusvika 2010 - 2018 µg / m35,5. Uye ramba uine zviitiko zvakawanda zvakaoma izvo zvakaoma kufanotaura.

Vietnam kusvibiswa kwemhepo
Kusvibiswa kwemhepo muVietnam kuri kuwedzera zuva nezuva

Kana riri guta. MuHo Chi Minh Guta, avhareji AIQ index ndeye 86 ine PM2.5 yakanaka guruva ye28.3. Kusunga uku kwakakwira kupfuura chiyero chenyika (3.3 µg/m3) uye kaviri kurudziro kubva kuWHO. 

Kubva 2018 kusvika 2019, iyo AIQ index uye PM2.5 yakanaka dust concentration muVietnam inowanzowedzera zvakanyanya kana ichienzaniswa nenguva kubva 2010 kusvika 2017. Mukupera kwenguva 2019, North yaifanira kuve nedambudziko. yakaoma kusvibiswa kwemhepo maitiro . Iyo AIQ yaive padanho rine njodzi zvakanyanya uye guruva rakatsetseka rakagadzira mhute gobvu. Inobata zvakanyanya hupenyu hwezuva nezuva uye inokonzera zvirwere zvakawanda zvine chokuita nekufema. Panguva ino, Hanoi ndiro guta rechinomwe munyika maererano nekusvibiswa kwemhepo. 

Hunhu hwemhepo kubva pakutanga kwa2020 kusvika ikozvino hunoonekwa kunge hwakavandudzika zvakanyanya. Iyo AIQ uye PM2.5 zviyero zvakagara zvichiramba zviri pakati uye zvakanaka. Chikonzero ndechekuti nyika yedu yakashandisa kuparadzaniswa kwevanhu paive neCovid 19. Kuderedza huwandu hwemotokari dziri kutenderera uye nekudaro, huwandu hwehutsi hwakaburitswa mumhepo hwakadzikirawo zvakanyanya. 

AIQ yekuenzanisa chati mune 1 gore rapfuura muHanoi (9/2019 - 8/2020): 

+ Kusvibiswa kwemhepo muHa Nam

Mamiriro ekusvibiswa kwemhepo kwakakomba muguta reKien Khe, mudunhu reThanh Liem anga achienderera mberi kwemakore anopfuura gumi. Kana marori akatakura matombo nejecha akasavharwa zvakanaka, anopararira mumugwagwa, utsi neguruva zvinoita kuti vanhu vasagadzikana.

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kubva mukugadzira limestone muHa Nam
Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kubva mukugadzirwa kwe limestone kwave kutyisa

Maindasitiri uye nzvimbo dzekugadzirisa mu (Duy Tien, Kim Bang) zvakadaro zvinobatsira mukusimudzira hupfumi hwenyika. Nekudaro, zvinosvibisa zvichiri kuburitswa pedyo nenzvimbo dzinogara vanhu, zvichikanganisa hutano nehupenyu hwevanhu vari pedyo. Kunyange vanhu vanofanira kupfeka masiki mudzimba dzavo. Utsi neguruva zvakatenderedza taundi rekumusha rimwe chete mudunhu reHa Nam!

Kana kuti kusvibiswa kunotyisa kwemvura yerwizi rweNhue, kufa kukuru kwehove muRwizi rwaChau (runoyerera nemaguta ePhu Ly neDuy Tien) kubudisa kunhuhwirira mumhepo hakuna kumbomira zvachose.

Chii chinonzi Air Pollution?

Mhepo chinhu chakakosha pahupenyu hwevanhu. Kuumbwa kwayo i78% nitrogen, 21% okisijeni, uye 1% mamwe magasi makomisheni. Okisijeni mumhepo inobatsira vanhu kuchengetedza hupenyu uye kuitisa akasiyana ezvimwe zviitiko. Pasina mhepo kwemaminetsi mashanu kusvika manomwe, vanhu vanowira mukoma vofa maminetsi mashoma gare gare. Pasinei nebasa rakakosha kudaro, vanhu havasati vanyatsoita hanya nekuvapo kwemhepo. Tsvina ichiri kuraswa mumhoteredzo zuva nezuva. Zvinokonzera kusvibiswa kwemhepo. 

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo ndiko kusunungurwa kwezvinosvibisa mumhepo zvinokuvadza hutano hwevanhu uye pasi rose. Inomiririra shanduko mukuumbwa kwemhepo. Nekuda kwekuunganidzwa kweguruva, chiutsi kana magasi ekunze. Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunokanganisa hutano hwevanhu, kukuvadza mhuka nemiti. Kukonzera mamiriro acho ezvinhu Kuchinja Kwemamiriro ekunze Global. Kuparadzwa kwenzvimbo yakasikwa, kuparadzwa kwezvivakwa. Kutyisidzira hupenyu hwemazana emamiriyoni evanhu pasi pano. 

Nhoroondo yekusvibiswa kwemhepo

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kwakange kusina zvakwakamboita paNyika mukati memazana emakore 18 ekutanga. Panguva ino, izvo zvinosvibisa zvinonyungudutswa mumhepo, kusanganiswa kwezviratidzo zvekusvibisa kuchiri mukati mechikamu chakanaka. Kusvika pakusvika kweFirst Industrial Revolution mukutanga kwezana ramakore reXNUMX. Nekuvandudzwa kwemashini system uchishandisa zvinhu zvinopisa (kunyanya marasha, huni). Kunyanya kuiswa kwepombi yemhepo kuburikidza nekushanda kweturbine. 

Nhoroondo
Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kwakaonekwa pakatanga kuitika shanduko yemaindasitiri

Mapombi eSteam aitaridza kugadzira mamiriro ekuti nyika dzigadzirise zvigadzirwa zvemaindasitiri. Kupatsanurana kuri kuramba kuchibuda pachena, vanhu vari kuramba vachishandisa zvese. Pasina kutariswa kwemhando yemhepo kana kuwedzera-kuwedzera-kuwedzera kwehutsi. 

Chiitiko chakaratidza kuputika kwekusvibiswa kwemhepo kwaiva muna October 10. Mhepo yakawanda yakasvibiswa yakafukidza nzvimbo yeDonora, Pennsylvania, USA uye nzvimbo dzakapoteredza. 

Mhepo yakasvibiswa yakakurumidza kuumba makore ane hutsi hwakaputira nzvimbo yose yetaundi reDonora. Kuonekwa kunokanganisa uye kutadza kufema kunoitika. Mazuva matatu gare gare, kufa kwekutanga kubva mukusvibiswa kwemhepo kwakaitika. Uye kwemazuva mashoma akatevera, nhamba yevakafa yakaramba ichiwedzera. 

Zvinoenderana nenhamba dzeDhipatimendi reUnited States of Environmental Protection, mumazuva mashanu chete ekusvibiswa kwemhepo, nhamba yevakafa yaive vanhu makumi maviri. Kunyange zvazvo vanhu vaigara munzvimbo iyoyo vasina kufa, utano hwavo hwakakanganiswawo zvakakomba. Vanhu vanosvika zviuru zvinomwe vakarwara uye vakaiswa muchipatara mushure mezvo. 

MuLondon (UK), muna 1954, mushure memakore mana, chiitiko chekutanga chekusvibiswa kwemhepo chakaitika. Imwe njodzi yekusvibisa yakaitika. Iyi njodzi yakaitika mukati memazuva mashanu nekuonekwa kwehutsi hweyero.

London haze
The haze phenomenon muLondon (UK) muna 1952

Kuonekwa iko zvino kwakaderedzwa kusvika pasi pe3.5 metres. Motokari dzinowanzokonzera njodzi panguva yekufamba. Paunenge uchibuda, zvinosungirwa kupfeka mask. Zvikasadaro, iwe unobva wangonzwa kupera simba. Njodzi yekusvibisa iyi yatora hupenyu hwevanhu vanodarika mazana mana. 

Kwete kungomira ipapo, kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunoitikawo kakawanda muNew York. Nguva yakaoma kwazvo yakakonzera kufa kwe400 (1965). Muna 1930, muBelgium Meuse mupata, kusvibiswa kwemhepo kwakauraya vanhu 63, kurwarisa vanhu 6000 XNUMX uye kuchipatara nemapapu akakuvadzwa neguruva. 

Tafura 1: Njodzi dzekusvibiswa kwemhepo kubvira 1930

Nguva Nzvimbo Kufa
1930 Meuse Valley, Belgium 63
1948 Donora, Pennsylvania 20
1950 Poza Rica, Mexico 22
1952 London 4.000
1953 New York 250
1956 London 1.000
1957 London 700 - 800
1962 London 700
1963 New York 200 - 400
1966 New York 168

Pakazosvika 1990, ndiko kuti, pashure pemakore anopfuura 40 ekuputika kwemhepo yakasvibiswa, kuumbwa kwemhepo kwakanga kwachinjwa. Nemhando dzakasiyana-siyana dzemishonga inokuvadza, yakadai se sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), suspended particles (SPM). Uye kabhoni monoxide (CO) pamusoro pemhepo. 

Hunhu hwezvimwe zvinosvibisa mweya

Zvinhu zvinokonzera kusvibiswa kwemhepo zvinosanganisira: sulfur oxide (SOx), nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide, ozone uye halogen magasi. Mamwe akamiswa guruva particles, volatile organic compounds uye fluoride makomboni. 

Izvi zvinosvibisa zvinonyanya kugadzirwa panguva yekupiswa kwezvinhu nemafuta. Inogadzirwa kubva kuhutsi kubva mukugadzira zvirimwa nemotokari. Mishonga iyi inozopedzisira yashandurwa kuita chechipiri chinosvibisa senge formaldehyde, aldehydes, andro carbon, uye peroxy acetyl nitrate. Zvinokanganisa hupenyu nemabasa evanhu vari paNyika. 

Tafura 2: Hunhu hwezvinosvibisa mweya 

Zita remishonga Recipe Zvinhu zvenyama Affect 
Sulfur oxide SO2 Gasi risina ruvara, rinopinza, rinorema kudarika mweya. Inokwanisa kunyungudika mumvura Ndicho chikonzero che conjunctivitis yemaziso, acute kufema zvirwere. 
Nitrogen dioxide NO2 Red-brown gasi, kunhuwa kwakasimba, chepfu Inokonzera mabayo, inoparadza tracheal cord. Inouraya kana ikafumurwa kwenguva yakareba
Carbon monoxide CO Gasi risina ruvara, risinganhuhwi, risingaravi  Inoderedza kutorwa kweokisijeni. Inogona kuuraya muhuwandu hwepamusoro. 
Hydrogen sulfide H2S Gasi risina ruvara nekunhuhwirira kwemazai akaora  Zvinokonzera kukanganisa kumapapu, maziso uye dzimwe nhengo dzemuviri
Halogen magasi F, Cl, Br, I Yakasimba inopindirana nemvura, inonyungudika muorganic solvents  Yakasimba greenhouse effect 
ozone O3 Bhuruu gasi, kunhuhwirira kusingafadzi Zvinokonzera kukuvara kwekufema, kuderedza kushanda kwemapapu. Kuderera kwekupikisa, kuwedzera kwengozi yekufa. 

Indoor air quality (IAQ) 

Kuongororwa kwehutano hwemhepo yemukati

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo mukati kunogona kukwira zvakapetwa kasere pane kusvibiswa kwemhepo yekunze. Maererano nekuongorora kwakaitwa neInstitute of Occupational Safety and Health mumahofisi e8 muzvivako zve 6 muguta remukati reHanoi muna 4. Ivhareji ye CO2017 mumhepo ndeye 2 ppm; formaldehyde iri 860 ppm; organic organic matter ine 0,023 ppm; kufema guruva rekugadzirisa 6,33 mg / m0,208. Kana zviratidzo izvi zvikaiswa maererano nemaitiro epasi rose, zvinodarika mwero unobvumidzwa.

Iko kusungirirwa kweguruva rePM10 muimba yekugara yedzimba muHanoi (2017) inodarikawo chiyero ne2,5 nguva; PM2,5 guruva rakatsetseka rinopfuura chiyero che3 nguva. Huwandu hwemabhakitiriya eaerobic, snow-melting streptococcus, uye fungi mumba zvese zvaive zvisina mwero.

Radon (Rn) gasi - kenza yekenza inodurura kubva pasi mune dzimwe nzvimbo inovharirwa mukati memba. Pamwe chete neizvozvo, zvekuvaka, makapeti, plywood emit H2CO (formaldehyde); VOCS pendi uye zvinonyungudutsa; detergents uye air conditioning systems; Kusvibiswa kwemhepo ndicho chikonzero chikuru chekusvibiswa kwemhepo mukati.

Mhepo yekunze inopinda mumba nenzira dzakasiyana siyana, sekuburikidza nekuvhura mumadziro, mahwindo, pasi, sirin'i, maairconditioner, mafeni anopedza simba. Kutaura zvazviri, kuitira kuderedza simba, zvivako zviri kuwedzera kuvharwa, zvichiita kuti mhepo ipinde nyore nyore. Mimwe yemhedzisiro yatinonzwa pahuro yakaoma, kukosora. Sezvo mhedzisiro yekufumurwa ichitora nguva refu, kenza yemapapu inogona kukura. Vana nevakadzi mapoka anonzwisisa. Zviripachena, varwere vane allergic kune mamwe maajenti vachatamburawo kukuvadzwa kwenguva refu.

Kunobva kusvibiswa

Kwakabva: Kusvuta (fodya, mapaipi, fodya)

  • Zvinosvibisa: Utsi hwefodya munzvimbo yakapoteredza
  • Migumisiro: Kushatirwa kwemhino, huro, kuwedzera asthma; kuwedzera zviratidzo zvekufema; kukanganisa kushanda kwemapapu; kenza yemapapu
  • Chiito:Mumba hamuputirwe

Kwakabva: Kudziya, kubika (pombo, chitofu, makenduru ...)

  • Zvinosvibisa: tsvina particles; nitrous oxide gasi, carbon monoxide; sulfur oxide
  • Migumisiro: Mhino, kutsamwa kwehuro; kuwedzera kwechikosoro zviratidzo; kukanganisa kushanda kwemapapu; COPD inowedzera; kenza yemapapu; carbon monoxide chepfu uye rufu
  • Chiito: Shandisa fan yekupedza kana uchibika; kuderedza kupisa kwehuni; nguva dzose kuchenesa chimneys; kugadzirisa gasi; kuderedza kushandiswa kwemoto wakavharwa.
Xem thm  Kusvibiswa kwemvura uye zvinokanganisa hutano hwevanhu
Kupisa, kubika
Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kubva pakupisa, kubika

Kwakabva: Makemikari (pendi, mishonga yekuchenesa, zvipembenene, fungicides, mishonga yezvipembenene ...)

  • Zvinosvibisa: VOCs, S-VOCs (inoputika, semi-volatile, organic organic compounds)
  • Migumisiro: Kutadza kufema; nasopharyngeal size; kuwedzera asima; chepfu
  • Chiito: Tevera mirairo paunenge uchishandisa makemikari; nyatsorasa mudziyo wakashandiswa; kushanda pasi pemhepo inofefetera.

Kunobva: Ground uko kuvaka

  • Zvinosvibisa: Radon
  • Migumisiro: Kenza yemapapu (radon inokonzera 9% yekufa kwekenza yemapapu, njodzi iyi inowedzera nekuputa.
  • Chiito: Yera mazinga eradon padyo nenzvimbo dzekugara, dzisiri dzekuputa

Kwakabva: Zvishandiso zvekuvaka (kuvharidzira ruzha, kupisa kupisa, glue, plastiki, simende ..)

  • Zvinosvibisa: Asbestos; fiber girazi; formaldehyde semi-volatile organic zvigadzirwa; mavhairasi uye mabhakitiriya
  • Migumisiro: Pulmonary fibrosis; spectrum cancer; kushungurudza nasopharyngeal; zviratidzo zvakanyanya zveasthma.
  • Chiito: Kana kugadziriswa kwemba kuchidikanwa, rega nyanzvi iite; usabata asbestos, fiberglass mumba; pfeka masiki uye giya rekudzivirira paunenge uchishanda; Kufefetera zvakanaka kwemba.
Zvishandiso zvekuvaka
Zvishandiso zvekuvaka ndezvimwe zvinokonzeresa kusvibiswa kwemhepo

Kwakabva: Furniture (magumbeze, machira, mapiro, matiresi...)

  • Zvinosvibisa: Hupfu
  • Migumisiro: Allergy; asima yakaoma
  • Chiito: Chengetedza imba yakachena, kuderedza hunyoro mumba; sarudza pasi panzvimbo yekapeti; shandisa anti-mite zvivharo; vanoda kuchinja metiresi nguva dzose.

Kwakabva: Mhuka (imbwa, katsi, shiri, nezvimwewo)

  • Zvinosvibisa: Allergens; chirwere chemhuka
  • Migumisiro: Allergies
  • Chiito: Chengetedza mhuka dzinovaraidza mumba; Kuparadzanisa pekugara pechipfuwo kubva munzvimbo yekugara.

Parizvino, Vietnam haisati yaburitsa mukati memhepo mhando zviyero. Iwe unofanirwa kutenga ma tester emhando yemhepo kana kuisa ma detectors ekusvibisa kudzikamisa maajenti anokuvadza uye kudzivirira kukanganisa hutano.

Yakavharwa imba syndrome (SBS)

Sick building syndrome (SBS) inoshandiswa kureva nyaya dzekuti kugara/kushanda muzvivakwa zvepamusoro-soro kana dzimba dzakavharwa zvine chekuita neutano. Izvi zvinoenderana nenguva inopedzwa muchivako ichocho, asi mamiriro ekurapa chaiwo kana chikonzero chechirwere hachigone kuzivikanwa. Muna 1970 chete, SBS yakagamuchirwa kwenguva pfupi neboka renyanzvi dzeAmerica sechikonzero chezvikonzero zvakawanda. Zviratidzo zveSBS zvichadzikira kana kunyangarika paunobuda mumba. Kune vanhu vane hanya, zvine mhedzisiro yenguva refu.

Muchidzidzo chakaitwa neUK Housing Environment Council, mutengo wechirwere ichi muUK kubva pa350 kusvika 650 miriyoni paunzi. MuSweden, munhu mumwe chete pavanhu vana anobatwa neSBC. MuUS, 4 mu1 zvivakwa zvinogona kukonzera SBS. Kunyangwe chirwere ichi chisati chanyatso buda, hachina kukonzeresa zvakanyanya pakugadzirwa kwemaindasitiri. Asi SBS iri kuunza matambudziko makuru kumasaenzi, apo mamiriro ekushanda uye hutano hwevanhu hunofanirwa kutariswa.

Yakavharwa imba syndrome (SBS)
Closed house syndrome (SBS) inobata vanhu vakawanda

Zvimwe zviratidzo zvekuvhara imba syndrome: 

  • Headache
  • Nausea nguva dzose pasina kudzora
  • Kushatirwa kweganda, kuoma, kuputika, kuputika
  • Kurwadza kwehuro nemaziso
  • Kuisa pfungwa zvakanaka pabasa
  • Kupfupika kwemweya wekufema, mhino inoyerera uye kuoma kwechipfuva
  • Waneta, waneta muviri.
  • Tsandanyama nemajoini kurwadza muviri wese

Zviratidzo izvi zvinogona kuitika zvakazvimiririra kana pamwe chete nekufamba kwenguva. Nzvimbo imwe neimwe ichavawo nezviratidzo zvakasiyana. Iwe unogona chete kutarisa kana iwe uine yakavharwa imba chirwere ne, kana iwe waona zviratidzo zviri pamusoro, siya kubasa kwako kana kumba. Kana zviratidzo izvi zvikanyangarika uye zvinowanzoonekwa zvakare paunodzoka. Saka une chirwere cheSBS.

Greenhouse syndrome haibatanidzi vanhu vane chirwere ichi. Zvisinei, vashandi vomuhofisi vanoshanda muzvivako zvisina mahwindo mashoma, mhepo isina mhepo isina kusimba, uye kugara muma<em>air-conditioner ndiro boka riri panjodzi huru yokubatwa nehosha yacho. Kunyanya, vanhu vanowanzoshanda nemidziyo yemagetsi nemakomputa vanowanzowana chirwere ichi.

Vakadzi ndivo vanobatwa nechirwere ichi kupfuura varume. Izvo zvakare nekuda kwechimiro chebasa remuhofisi kupfuura varume.

Munzvimbo dzine vanhu vakawanda vari kushanda, kunyange kumba, zvipatara, mamiziyamu, zvikoro, nezvimwewo, chirwere ichi “chemazuva ano” chinogona kuramba chichiitika. Kuti uderedze chirwere, zvakakosha kutarisa kuchena, kusanganisira vacuum cleaner, ventilation system, uye air conditioner. Wedzera humidifier kana hunyoro hunodonha pasi pe40%. Chenjerera kuvhura hwindo pane kushandisa air conditioner nguva dzose. Iva nebasa rakanaka uye kuronga kuzorora kuti udzivise kunetseka kwenguva refu. Usashanda kwenguva yakareba pamberi pekombuta, enda kunzvimbo inofefetera mushure memaminitsi makumi maviri nemakumi matatu ekushanda. Shingairira maekisesaizi musingagari muhofisi. Paunoona zviratidzo zveSBS, taura nevakuru vako kuti vawane rubatsiro rwakanyanya uye hutano. Usakanganwe kuenda kuchipatara kana zviratidzo zvako zvanyanya.

Pamba iva nechokwadi chokuti imba yako yakachenawo. Vhura mahwindo zvakanyanya kutenderera kwemhepo. Tsvaira tsvina, dzivisa huruva, shongedza imba nenzira inotonhorera, yakanyatsogadzikana yemuviri.

Kutsvaira nekutsvaira kumba
Pamba, unofanira kuchenesa nguva dzose kuderedza kusvibiswa kwemhepo

Mhepo Kusvibisa Agents 

Izvo zvinosvibisa mhepo zvakanyanya kubva mumhepo inosvibisa. Zvinhu izvi zvinogona kuvapo mune gasi, yakasimba kana mvura. Inogona kuberekwa kubva kumabasa echisikigo kana kubva kumabasa evanhu. Zvinosvibisa zvinoiswa mumapoka makuru maviri seyepuraimari neyechipiri. 

Mune izvo zvinosvibisa zvekutanga zvinosanganisira:

  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2): Iyo gasi huru inokonzera inotungamira greenhouse effect. Inoonekwawo sechinhu chinokonzeresa zvakanyanya kusvibiswa kwemamiriro ekunze. Carbon Dioxide chinhu chinoburitswa mushure mekufema kwemunhu uye chinhu chakakosha pakukura kwechirimwa. Nekudaro, nekutsva kwezvinhu zvekugadzira maindasitiri mabasa. CO2 concentration yakawedzera kusvika padanho rinotyisa uye inokonzera kukanganisa kwakawanda kwehupenyu hwevanhu. 
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO2): Gasi rinogadzirwa nekuputika kwegomo. Uye magadzirirwo eindasitiri anoshandisa huni, marasha, uye petroleum sezvinhu zvinogadzirwa. Kupisa kwezvinhu izvi ndicho chikonzero chikuru chekugadzira sulfur dioxide. SO2 inoiswa oxidized kana yasanganiswa nemamwe makemikari zvinhu kukonzera mvura yeasidhi. Inokanganisa zvivakwa uye inoita kuti hurongwa hwekufema uye cornea yevanhu ive nechepfu. 
  • Nitrogen oxides, kunyanya NO2: Uyuwo musanganiswa unogadzirwa nekupiswa kwezvinhu. Mukuwedzera, inoumbwawo kubva kumabhanan'ana, kutinhira, uye mheni. NO2 igasi rine chepfu, kana yakafumurwa kwenguva yakareba, vanhu vane mukana wakakura wekufa. Kunze kwezvo, Nitrogen Dioxide iri nyore kwazvo kusanganisa nemamwe makomisheni kugadzira mvura yeasidhi. Kusvibiswa kwemhepo nemvura. 
No2
NO2 inokonzera kusvibiswa kwemhepo uye kusvibiswa kwemvura
  • Carbon monoxide (CO): CO igasi risina ruvara, risinganhuhwi, rine muchetura asi risingagumbure. Akazvarwa kubva mukupiswa kwezvinhu zvakasikwa. Kana kuti kubva kumota kwemoto. CO muhuwandu hwakakura inogona kuuraya kuvanhu. Ikomboni inoita kuti kusvibiswa kwezvakatipoteredza uye kusvibiswa kwemhepo kuve kwakanyanya. 
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs): Idzi imvura kana yakasimba organic komisheni inogona kubuda pasi pemamiriro akasiyana. Kazhinji inoumbwa mumhepo yakashama. VOCs ndiyo honzeri yekuwedzera kudziya kwepasirese, iyo huru komputa inokonzera greenhouse effect. Inogona kukonzera gomarara kana leukemia muvanhu.
  • Fine particles (PM): Aya madiki madiki. Inogona kuva yakasimba kana yemvura fomu. Iripo yakaturikwa mumhepo. Izvi zvidimbu zvakanaka zvinogona kuitika mumabasa echisikigo. Kufanana nemadutu, makomo anoputika. Moto wemasango. kana nekuda kwekugadzirwa kwemaindasitiri nemabasa evanhu. Kuramba kuchiwedzera kwezvimedu zvakanaka kunogona kukonzera zvirwere zvakawanda zvine chekuita nemapapu kuvanhu. Kufanana nemabayo kana kenza yemapapu. 
  • Marara, tsvina uye hwema hwemaindasitiri. Inowedzera muchetura mumhepo, zvichikonzera mhedzisiro pahutano hwevanhu. 

Sekondari zvinosvibisa: 

  • Smog: Smog mhedzisiro yemabasa ekupisa marasha. Kana nekuda kwekubuda kwemota. Iine utsi uye sulfur dioxide (SO2). Smog inosanganiswa pamwe nekumwe kuburitsa kugadzira photochemical smog. Mhando iyi yehutsi inoderedza kuonekwa kwevanhu, inoderedza kushanda kwemapapu. Zvinokonzera zvirwere zvakawanda zvekufema. Inowedzera njodzi yegomarara uye inokuvadza zvidyarwa uye zvipenyu. 
  • Surface Ozone (O3): Iri igasi rakajairika paNyika. Inowanikwa mu stratosphere. Mune mwero wakadzika, O3 inobata ultraviolet mwaranzi yezuva. Batsira kuchengetedza hupenyu paPasi. Nekudaro, nekuwedzera kuri kuita fossil mafuta ekupisa mabasa. O3 concentration iri kuwedzera zuva nezuva. Kana O3 yasangana nezvimwe zvinosvibisa mumhepo, inoumba mvura ine acid, kana chiutsi. Kuwedzera kusvibiswa kwePasi. 
Ozone concentration
Kuwanda kweozone (O3) kunowedzera kusvibiswa kwePasi
  • Peroxyacetyl nitrate: Kusvibiswa kwakagadzirwa kunyanya kubva kuNitrogen Dioxide (NO2) panguva yephotochemical smog process. Peroxyacetyl nitrate inogona kukonzera kutsamwa kweziso, kukuvadza kune nhengo dzekufema dzevanhu. 

Kusvibiswa nemabasa evanhu 

Kusvibiswa kwezvakatipoteredza hausi muchetura wemusikirwo waunogadzira, asi une simba guru pavanhu uye mabasa ekugadzira maindasitiri. Zvinokonzera kuti nharaunda iwande neguruva, gasi remhepo, marara emumba, nezvimwe. Kunyange zvazvo mari inoshandiswa iduku zvikuru. Saka, ndezvipi zviitiko zvakakanganisa kusvibiswa kwezvakatipoteredza? 

Kusvibiswa kwemaindasitiri

Zviitwa zvekugadzira maindasitiri kubva kumafekitari nemabhizinesi ari mumaindasitiri anotevera: makanika, machira, injini, pendi, zvidhinha kupisa, kudzoreredza marara, kucheneswa kwembatya, zvinhu zvevatengi... Mumhepo , muchimiro chemhute inopfungaira.

Indasitiri imwe neimwe inogadzira magasi akasiyana, zvichiita kuti mhepo isanyanya kutsva. Semuenzaniso, iyo metallurgical industry inogadzira zvinhu zvakawanda zvinokuvadza: SO2, CO, NH3, Phenol, HCN ... Kuti ibudise 1 toni yesimbi yakapedzwa, iyo metallurgical process inofanira kusunungura 4kg SO2.

Maindasitiri ekuvaka akadai sesimende, mataira, zvidhinha, kongiri, matombo. Kukuvadza kukuru pakugadzira zvigadzirwa zvakapedzwa iguruva, CO, SO2, NO. Munyika dzakawanda dzichiri kusimukira, nzira dzokurapa nadzo hadzina kunaka. Yechinyakare yekugadzira level, kurapwa hakugone kuvimbiswa, saka kunogadzira huwandu hukuru hwekusvibiswa kwemweya. 

Kusvibiswa kwemaindasitiri
Hutsi hunobva mumaindasitiri hunowedzera kusvibiswa kwemhepo

Kunze kwezvo, kune zvakare indasitiri yemagetsi ekupisa, kune mafossil fuels: Marasha, mafuta, dhiziri akapiswa kugadzira magetsi. Zvakajairwa zvinhu zvinosvibisa nharaunda yeindasitiri iyi SO2, CO, CO2, NOx. MuUnited States, zvinofungidzirwa kuti kusvika ku15% yeSO2 emissions inoburitswa mumhepo kubva kumafekitori. Inenge 68% inokonzerwa nemarasha-anopisa uye mafuta-anopisa mafuta emagetsi ekupisa. 

Muindasitiri yemakemikari, kunyungudutsa simbi dzisina-ferrous, huturu hwemhando mbiri idzi dzakasiyana. Haiyerwe nehukuru, inotarirwa nehupfu hwezvinhu zvirimo. Aya ma acid mhute, organic compounds cyanide, fluoride, VOCs...

Pamusoro pazvo, kune marara anoiswa mumarashi anoburitsa methane. Iri gasi rinopfuta uye rinogadzira misanganiswa nemhepo. Methane inogona kukonzera asphyxia munzvimbo dzakavharirwa nekufambisa oxygen kunze. Kuita kuti unzwe uchizarirwa, uchifema, zvichikonzera kudonha kwemaokisijeni pasi pe19.5%. Migumisiro yehondo yenyukireya, zvombo zvinokandwa nanhasi zvichiri zvakavanzwa mumasikirwo. Vanhu vanongogara vari muchimiro chekusateerera nepesvedzero iyi. 

Kusvibiswa kubva kune zvakasikwa

Miti mishoma, huruva kubva kune zvakasikwa. Nzvimbo dzine nzvimbo yakakura yevhu isina chinhu dzine yakaderera photosynthetic kugona.

Methane muchisikigo inogadzirwa zvakangoitika nekugayiwa kwechikafu nemhuka. Kana huwandu hwegasi iri hwakawandisa, zvichiita kuti O2 yakamanikidzwa ifambe, vanhu vanogara imomo vanonetseka kufema.

Kana goko rePasi richingoburitsa Radon gasi. Gasi rine muchetura, risinganhuhwi rinogadzirwa nekuora kweRadium. Inofungidzirwa sengozi ine ngozi kune hutano hwevanhu paPasi. Radon inounganidzwa muzvivakwa. Kunyanya mudzimba dzepasi, dzimba uye ndicho chimwe chezvikonzero zvekenza yemapapu mushure mekuputa. 

Moto wemasango unoburitsa utsi neCarbon Monoxide yakawanda, vanhu vanozonzwa kudzipwa kana vakagadzirwa zvakanyanya. Mukuwedzera, kuputika kwegomo rinoputika, kuumba sarufa, madota uye chlorine gasi. 

Moto wemasango
Moto wemasango unoburitsa utsi neCarbon Monoxide yakawanda inosvibisa mweya

Mumazuva anodziya, zvirimwa mune dzimwe nzvimbo zvinoburitsa volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Iyi VOCS ichaita pamwe nezvimwe zvinosvibisa. Kunyanya nekuda kweanthropogenic NOx, SO2 uye anthropogenic organic kabhoni makomisheni. Inogadzira mhute yemwaka yezvimwe zvinosvibisa. Huwandu hwakawanda hweVOCs hunogadzirwa kubva mutema gum miti, mipopori, mioki kana mirwi. Apo inogadzirwa yakawanda kubva kumarudzi emiti aya, zvichiita kuti mwero weozone ukwire zvakapetwa kasere kupfuura mumarudzi emiti ane simba rakaderera. 

Kusvibiswa kwekurima

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunokanganiswawo nemabasa ekurima. Kushandiswa kwemakemikari, mishonga yesora, mishonga yezvipembenene ... inokonzera kukuvadza kwakawanda kumhepo, ivhu nemvura. Kana makemikari aya aora pachawo muminda nemumadziva. Vanozoburitsa zvinosvibisa zvakaita semethane, kana hydrosul.

Mishonga yezvipembenene
Mishonga yezvipembenene kugadzira zvinosvibisa zvakaita semethane, kana hydrosul

Mukufudza mhuka, fetereza yemhuka ine N2, inova ndiyo inoburitsa kubuda kweammonia. Kana mupfudze ukapiswa, unoburitsa gasi rakarembera rakaparadzirwa mumhepo. Yakanyanya diki muhukuru, yakasimba uye yakaoma kugadzirisa. Ichakanganisa hutano hwemhepo nekunhuhwirira kusingafadzi. Naizvozvo, kuti kuderedze huwandu hweammonia gasi, mabharaki uye varidzi vezvipfuyo vanodzikamisa kupisa kwemarara kuvandudza kunaka kwemhepo.

Traffic uye zvifambiso zviitiko

Kubatanidzwa kwemotokari mumigwagwa ndicho chikonzero chikuru chekusvibiswa kwemhepo. Kusvibiswa kwemazinga anosvika makumi mashanu muzana, iyo CO ndiyo inonyanya kusvibiswa kwemhepo inogadzirwa nemotokari. Muna 50, kusvika 1983% yehutsi hwaibva kumotokari dzemotokari. Nekudaro, parizvino, mota uye midhudhudhu zvese zvinogadzirwa necatalytic converter tekinoroji. Nekuda kweizvozvo, huwandu hweCO gasi hunopinda nharaunda hwakaderedzwa zvakanyanya. 

CO ndeye-chigadzirwa chekupisa kusina kukwana. CO2 ndicho chigadzirwa chekupisa kwakakwana. Kupisa kwepeturu ndiyo honzeri huru yenitrous oxide uye H2C. Aya magasi anogona kuita photochemical reactions inoburitsa photochemical smog. Kukanganisa kwakakomba pamhepo, kunyanya mumaguta emadhorobha. 

Xem thm  Kusvibiswa kweruzha nemigumisiro yaro yakaipa paupenyu
kusvibiswa kwemigwagwa
Hutsi hunobva mumotokari hunoita kuti kusvibiswa kwemhepo kuve kwakanyanya

Maererano nemushumo weInstitute of Transport Strategy and Development (Ministry of Transport), iyo nguva 20111 kusvika 2016. Mabasa ekufambisa muVietnam anoshandisa simba guru. yakatora chikamu che30% chesimba rose rinodiwa nenyika, 60% yemafuta ekushandisa uye yakawedzera negumi muzana gore rega rega. Zvifambiso zvemumugwagwa zvinopedza simba rakawanda, zvichiverengera makumi matanhatu nesere muzana emafuta eindasitiri. 10% yemafuta ekufambisa ipeturu nedhiziri. Kushandiswa kwevanhu vakawanda, mabasa ekufambisa zvakakonzera kuchinja kwemamiriro ekunze. Paavhareji, gore rega rega, matani anosvika mamirioni makumi matatu e CO68 anogadzirwa nekufambisa. Pakati pavo, kusvika 90% yehutsi inokonzerwa nekutakura mumigwagwa. Yakakura kupfuura huwandu hwenjanji, nzira dzemvura uye ndege, chete 30%. 

Nzira dzekutakura dzinobudisa huwandu hwakawanda hwezvinhu: Smoke, SOx, NOx, peturu mhute, benzene, lead... Kukonzera kusvibiswa kwemhepo. Kunyanya, muchikamu chechipiri che2 kusanganiswa kweguruva mumhepo muHanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hai Phong, Da Nang ... pamharadzano yaiva 2016 kusvika ku3 nguva dzakakwirira kudarika chiyero chakatarwa. Avhareji yehuwandu hweCO, NO5 pamharadzano huru inodarika iyo inobvumirwa mwero ne2 kusvika 1.2 nguva. 

Muchokwadi, kuburitsa kwemotokari kunoenderana nemhando yemotokari. Motokari uye midhudhudhu zvave zvichishandiswa kwemakore akawanda zvakaderedzwa, zvichiita kuti kushanda kwemafuta kuve kushoma. Kuwanda kwezvinhu zvine muchetura kwakakwira uye huruva mugasi rinobuda mumhepo inenge yakakwira… zvichikonzera kusvibiswa kwakanyanya. Midhudhudhu ndiyo honzeri yegasi rinosvibisa, CO ndiyo yakanyanya, uye marori nemotokari dzinotakura vanhu dzinoburitsa zvakanyanya NO2. Zvimwe, ruzha kusvibiswa Zvakare zvinoburitswa kubva muzviitiko zvetraffic zvakare chikonzero chekusvibiswa kwemhepo. 

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kubva muupenyu hwezuva nezuva

Mabasa emumba ezuva nezuva anobatsira zvishoma mukusvibiswa kwemhepo. Zvingango bva pakusvibisa mhepo yemumba zvinogona kunge makapeti, masofa, fenicha, mishonga yekugezesa kana mishonga yezvipembenene… Aya ndiwo anogona kukonzeresa kuparara kweorganic matter uye formaldehyde. Kana mumba mune munhu anoputa, zvinobatsirawo kuchizvarwa chechepfu organic compounds uye guruva rinokanganisa nzira yekufema. 

Kusvuta
Kusvuta kuita kugadzirwa kwechepfu organic komisheni uye huruva inokanganisa nzira yekufema

Zvakare, munzvimbo dzinodziya umo mvura inodzika, mumapombi, Wallpaper kana zvinhu zvinotora ruzha. Apa ndipo pane chisimbiso chine zvipenyu zvinosvibisa zvakaita sebhakitiriya nefungi. Mumahofisi, airtight inogona kubudisa ozone yakawanda. Rimwe gasi rinogona kupfuura nepakati pechivako iri radon. Kubva pamabasa ekuputsa zvinhu zvekuvaka, guruva reasbestos ririmo richapararira. Radon neasbestos zvinhu zviviri zvinosvibisa zvinokonzeresa zvirwere zvisingaperi izvo zvinogara kwemakore akawanda. 

Mukuwedzera, kubika mabasa, kuchenesa septic matangi ... kumba kunobatawo hutano hwemhepo. Zviitwa izvi zvinoita sezvidiki uye zvakajairika. Kutaura zvazviri, kukanganisa kwaro pahutano hakusi kuduku. Ukasiya zimbe rehuchi mumba, uchibika kwenguva refu mumba unozorwa negomarara rekufema. Kunze kwezvo, pane zvakawanda zvinotapurira utachiona mumba: kubika zuva nezuva, gasi rinobva museptic tank, sewage system, utsi hwemukicheni, gasi, marasha, huni... Hunhu hwemhepo kunze kwemba hunosvibiswawo nekusvibiswa kwemhepo yemukati. basa, nekuda kwekutsvaira chivanze. 

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunoikanganisa sei?

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo inyaya inotyisa nekuti ine hutano hwakakomba uye hupfumi, kana kukonzera shanduko yemamiriro ekunze. Kwete kungokuvadza vanhu, zvirimwa nemhuka chete asi zvinokanganisa mabasa enharaunda. 

Maererano nekuongorora kwakaitwa neHarvard University, gore negore vanhu vanenge 60.000 28 vanofa nehosha dzine chokuita nokusvibiswa kweguruva. MuUS chete, vanhu vanosvika mamirioni makumi maviri nemasere vane zvirwere zvisingaperi zvekufema. 

Kukanganisa hutano

Kukonzera Asthma

Kana achitambura nechirwere ichi, murwere anowira mumamiriro ekutadza kufema kwakanyanya. Parizvino, uku kuratidzwa kwakawedzera munyika yedu uye kutenderera pasirese. MuUS, pakati pa1983 na1993, kuwanda kwechirwere ichi kwakawedzera ne34%. Munzvimbo dzemumaguta, kune kuzara kwekusvibiswa kwemhepo, kunyanya zvinhu zvemukati uye SO2.

Chirwere chemabayo

Pneumonia chirwere umo mapapu anopera simba uye masaga emhepo mumapapu anoderera. Sezvo chirwere chinowedzera, aya masaga emhepo anowedzera uye maitiro avo e elastic anoderedzwa. Ipapo bhegi richaparadzwa, panguva iyo murwere anenge aine kupfupika kwekufema. Chinhu chinokuvadza zvakanyanya kuvanhu chinotungamira kune iyo mamiriro NO2. 

Kwete izvozvo chete, zvinosvibisa mhepo zvakare zvine acute mhedzisiro. Semuenzaniso, mhepo inoputika mumhepo inogona kukonzera dzungu, kushaya simba, kuzununguka, mhino dzakaputika, nezvimwewo. Kana kuti paunofema zvishoma CO, muviri wako unogona kubudisa huwandu hweCOHb. Kana 70% yehemoglobin iri muropa, inoshandura kuCOHb, iyo inogona kuuraya. Uyezve, kana yakafumurwa kune NO2 kusungwa kwe5ppm mushure meminiti imwe chete, inogona kukanganisa iyo yese yekufema system. Kana iri yepamusoro-soro, kubva pa15 kusvika ku50 ppm, mushure memaawa mashomanana ichava nengozi kumwoyo uye chiropa. Yakanyanya njodzi kana ichisvika kumazinga e100 ppm, inogona kukonzera rufu mumaminetsi mashoma mashoma.

Chirwere chemwoyo

Sekureva kwemushumo weBazi rezvehutano, kusvibiswa kwemhepo ndiko kuri kukonzera huwandu hwevanhu vanofa nezvirwere zvemoyo (kubva pa12% kusvika 14%/10 microg/m³).

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunokonzera chirwere chemwoyo
Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunokonzera chirwere chemwoyo

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo munyika dzichiri kusimukira kutyisidzira kuwedzera njodzi yesitiroko. Muna 2007, chidzidzo chakaratidza kuti muvakadzi, kusvibiswa kwemhepo kwakakonzera kubuda ropa asi wasschemic sitiroko. Mune imwe cohort kudzidza muna 2011, pakanga paine kuwedzera kwezviitiko uye kufa nekuda kwemukati coronary artery chirwere. Kutenderera pasirese, masangano mazhinji enyanzvi akataura kuti zvikonzero nemhedzisiro zvinoyananiswa ne vasoconstriction. 

Kenza

Maererano nekuongorora, kutarisana nemhepo kune ngozi yekenza muna 2007. Kutarisana nePM2,5 (guruva rakanaka 2,5 micrometers kana zvishoma mudhayamita). Kuratidzwa kwenguva refu kunowedzera njodzi yerufu kusvika pa6% ne10 micro/m3. Kuratidzwa kune iyi guruva rakanaka zvakare kunowedzera huwandu hwekufa kubva kugomarara remapapu ne15% kusvika 21%/10 micro/m3. Ngozi yekufa kwemoyo yakawedzera neinenge 12% kusvika 14% yega yega 10 microg/m3. Nekutsoropodza, vaongorori vakawana kuti kufumurwa kweguruva kwakabatana nekufa kubva kuchirwere chemoyo uye kuratidzwa kune SO2 kunowedzera kufa kwekenza yemapapu. 

Chidzidzo cheDanish epidemiological cha2011 chakawana kuti njodzi yekenza yemapapu yakawedzera kune vanhu vanogara munzvimbo dzine huwandu hwe nitrous oxide. Mhedzisiro yakawanikwa yakaratidza kuti kushamwaridzana kwaive kwakakwirira nevasingasvuti pane vanoputa. Mushure mekuwedzera tsvakiridzo, pakavawo nekubatana pakati pekusvibiswa kwemhepo uye mamwe marudzi egomarara senge cervical cancer cancer.

Muna Zvita 12, nyanzvi dzezvekurapa dzakagumisa kuti kenza imhaka yesimba remhando yemhepo munzvimbo. Kuchengeta uremu hune hutano, kudya kudya kunovaka muviri, kuderedza kunwa doro, uye kubvisa kusvuta kunononotsa kufambira mberi kwechirwere. 

Migumisiro yakaipa pavana

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunokanganisa zvakanyanya hutano hwevana. Kunyanya vana vari pasi pemakore mashanu vanogara munyika dzichiri kusimukira. Iyi inyaya ine ngozi nekuti mapapu evana vadiki, kufema kunokwira zvakapetwa kaviri kupfuura vanhu vakuru. Masoja ekuzvidzivirira nemuviri haana kunyatsogadzirwa. Nokudaro, chepfu mumhepo inopinda nyore nyore mumuviri wemwana. Inobva yapinda muropa yoenda kune dzimwe nhengo. MuUnited States pasinei nokusvibiswa, muna 5 vanhu vanosvika mamiriyoni 2002 vaigara munzvimbo dzine mhepo yakanyanyisa kusvibiswa. 

Tsvagiridzo yakaitwa nechikwata cheYunivhesiti yeCincinnati uye Cincinnati Vana Hospital Hospital yekurapa inoratidza izvozvo. Vana vanoratidzirwa kuguruva rakatsetseka kwenguva pfupi vanogona kunzwa kuora mwoyo. Vana pavanofema mweya wakasviba, zvinokonzeresa hosha dzinoverengeka dzemhino, maziso, uye hosha dzeganda. Zvirwere zvenguva refu zvakadai sechirwere cheshuga, kenza ... Zvose zvinokanganisa kukura kwe fetus, zvichiita kuti kuberekwa kusati kwasvika, uremu hushoma ... Zvakanyanya kukosha, kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunoparadza huropi hwehuropi, hunokanganisa maitiro ekuziva muvana. Mibairo yacho inogona kuwedzera kumikana yeramangwana yekudzidza-basa. Pamusoro pezvo, nevechiri kuyaruka, kana vakaiswa kune yakakwirira, vanozotambura nezvirwere zvepfungwa. 

Socioeconomic

Kufema mweya wakasviba mazuva ese hakungokonzeresa hutano. Zvinokanganisawo mashandiro evashandi. Maererano netsvagiridzo yazvino kubva kuWorld Health Organisation, kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunokanganisa hupfumi hunosvika zvikamu makumi mapfumbamwe nezviviri kubva muzana zvevanhu pasi rese havafeme mweya mutsva. Mhedzisiro pahupfumi hwenyika 92 trillion USD / gore. Zvakafanotaurwa kuti kusvibiswa kweozone pasi pano kuchaderedza goho rezvirimwa zvikuru ne5% ne26. Zvichitaurwa zviri nyore, nzvimbo ine utsi hwakawanda uye kusvibiswa inzvimbo yevashanyi, guta guru. Uye kuverengerwa senzvimbo ine kusvibiswa kwemhepo kwakanyanya hakugone kukwezva vashanyi. 

Maererano neshumo reWorld Bank, kusvibiswa kweVietnam kunokonzera kurasikirwa kwegore negore kwe5 kusvika ku7% yeGDP. Maererano netsvagiridzo kubva kuFulbright University Vietnam, kurasikirwa kwehupfumi kunosvika 9,86 kusvika 12,45 bhiriyoni USD mu2013 nekuda kwekusvibiswa kwemhepo. Muna 2019, India yakatambura nekuti kusvibiswa kwacho kwakange kwakakwira ka50 kupfuura mwero wakatenderwa, Thailand yakasvibiswa zvakanyanya uye zvikoro zvakavharwa ... Kana iri China, smog, ozone uye guruva rakanaka zvakashandisa madhora mabhiriyoni makumi matatu nemasere pagore. . 

Kunyanya, muHanoi chete, mari yegore negore yekuongorora kurapwa kwekufema uye kurapwa inofungidzirwa ku1.500 VND / munhu / zuva. Huwandu hwevanhu hunosvika 3,5 miriyoni mukati meguta. Nyanzvi dzezvehupfumi dzinoverengera kurasikirwa kuhupfumi kungangoita 2000 bhiriyoni VND / gore. Kukanganisa kwekusvibiswa kwemhepo kunotyisa kuVietnam nenyika. Zvinokonzera matambudziko ehutano, matambudziko ehutano uye kunyange kurasikirwa kukuru kwehupfumi. 

Kudziya kwepasi rose 

Nyika inopisa so

Kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunokonzeresa shanduko yemamiriro ekunze ichikonzera greenhouse mhedzisiro. Mhedzisiro yekutanga kuita kuti pasi ripise. Tembiricha yepasi pano inoumbwa nekudzika kwesimba rezuva richidonha uye kupisa kunoburitswa nenyika muchadenga. Kana greenhouse effect ikaitika, CO2, CFCs, Metal, uye N2O iripo muhuwandu hwakawanda. Pakati pavo, CO2 inotora 55%. Mushure maizvozvi, maCFC anotora chikamu che24% asi ane yakakwirira greenhouse effect pane CO2 (1 molecule yeCFC ine maitiro akafanana ne12.000 mamorekuru eCO2).

Kuparadzwa kwe ozone layer

Mira shure greenhouse effect, kuparadzwa kwe ozone layer nekusvibiswa kwemhepo kuri munyika yose. Ozone isimba rekufema uye rinogumbura maziso uye chikamu chikuru che stratospheric photochemical smog. Iyo ine inoshamisa kugona kutora mapfupi mafungu <0,28 àm. Pasina ozone, mwaranzi yeultraviolet yaizopinda pasi ichikonzera kusangana. Zvinokuvadza hutano hwevanhu, mhuka nemiti. 

Mukuwedzera, ndege dzepamusoro-soro dzinobudisa NO gasi, iyo inobatsirawo mukuparadzwa kwe ozone layer. Asi nechikamu chidiki kubva muzana kana chichienzaniswa neCFCs, morekuru rimwe reNO rinogona chete shuyr imwe molecule yeozone. Iyo nzira yekuparadza inoratidzwa mudhayagiramu:

NO + O3 => NO2 + O2

Mukuwedzera, gaseous chlorine ichave yakagadzikana munguva yechando, zuva muchirimo. Izvo zvikamu zviri photocatalysed uye atomu yeklorini inosunungurwa. Zvinokonzera kuti ozone layer ideredzwe zvakanyanya zvichitungamira kune gomba muozone layer. MuSouth Africa, Chile, Argentina, kupera kwe<em>ozone layer kwakaparira hosha zhinji dzeganda nedzemeso dzavanhu muno. 

Kukonzera mvura yeasidhi

Chikonzero chikuru chekunaya kweasidhi isulfuri, okisijeni, iyo inotora zvikamu zviviri kubva muzvitatu uye nitrogen oxide inenge chikamu chimwe muzvitatu. Nekuti aya ese magasi anonyungudika zviri nyore mumvura kuita sulfuric acid uye nitric acid. Mhepo inotakura masidhi aya pasi. Pamatanho akasiyana, mvura yeasidhi inoparadza zvirimwa, inokanganisa hupenyu hwevanhu, mhuka uye zvisikwa zvemumvura. Mukuwedzera, mvura yeasidhi inoparadza mabasa ekuvaka, mabhiriji ane ngura, zviyeuchidzo ...

Heat inversion

Mu troposphere, iyo yakakwirira yekukwirira, yakadzika tembiricha, mhepo yakakora. Sezvineiwo, kana paine gasi rinopisa uye rakareruka kumusoro, tembiricha yemhepo inowedzera. Iyi ndiyo heat inversion phenomenon inoitika zvakanyanya mumupata husiku. Muzhizha, hakuna chiitiko chakadaro asi nesimba rakafanana richapisa pasi. Asi munguva yechando kune kudonha kwechando kana condensation, iyo ichagara kwemazuva mazhinji. Inowedzera kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunokonzera kusagadzikana uye njodzi yakakura kune vanhu vane zvirwere zvekufema. 

Brown cloud cloud phenomenon

Masayendisiti akawana gasi rakasvibiswa rinofukidza nzvimbo huru yeSouth Asia. Uye inonzi gore reAsia brown. Iro gasi 3 km mukobvu, richiwedzera zviuru zvemakiromita kubva kumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumadokero kweAfghanistan kusvika kumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumabvazuva kweSri Lanka. Gasi iri rine guruva rakawanda, dota, soti nemamwe maasidhi anokuvadza. Makore aya anodzivirira chiedza kuti asasvike paNyika anodzikiswa nezvikamu gumi kusvika gumi nezvishanu muzana. Nyika inotonhora uye mvura inotonhora, asi mamiriro ekunze anopisa. Uye ine acid, iyi yakaturikidzana yemakore inokonzeresa mvura yeasidhi, ichideredza goho rekurima kwevanhu. 

Semuenzaniso, Asian brown rattan inogona kuderedza goho remupunga wechando ne10% muIndia. Makore ebrown anowedzerawo zvirwere zvekufema uye ndiwo anokonzera kufa kwakawanda. Uyezve, kunetseka kuri pasi rose nekuda kwemakore ebrown. Kusiyana nemagasi akareruka akadai sema<em>greenhouse magasi, anokwanisa kufamba-famba pasi, makore eguruva anhasi anewo mano. Uye maererano nekufanotaura, makore ebrown anogona kuenda pakati penyika muvhiki imwe.

Kudzora kusvibiswa kwemhepo 

Air quality management

Kuvandudza kushanda kwekudzora kusvibiswa

Pedzisa mipimo yemhepo kuti ienderane nemamiriro edunhu rega rega. Parizvino, kune marudzi maviri eemission standards uye ambient air quality standards. 

Emission standards Air quality mitemo
-Kuchipa mhando yega yega yekusvibisa, iyo emission value haigone kukonzera kuwanda kwezvinhu zvine chepfu mumhepo kudarika zvinotenderwa vanhu, mhuka nezvirimwa.
-Chiyero chekuburitsa muVietnam ndicho TCVN 5939, 59401995. Munguva pfupi iri kutevera, pachava nenhamba yemitemo inoshambadza nematunhu chaiwo akadai seTCVN 6992, 6993, 6994, 6995, 6996 - 2001. 
- Yakagadzirirwa chinangwa chekuchengetedza hutano hwevanhu. Yakakura inotenderwa kukosha, pakarepo kana deterministic nguva kuyerwa kubva 8 maawa kusvika 24 maawa.
-Zviyero zvehutano hwemhepo muVietnam TCVN 5937, 5938 - 1995. Yakapiwa mumamiriro ezvinhu uye nesayenzi uye unyanzvi hwekugadzira mhizha yeVietnam, zvichienderana nemitemo yenyika uye inotsvakurudza hutsanana hwezvokurapa. 
Xem thm  Kusvibiswa kwezvakatipoteredza: Tora chiito ikozvino kuchengetedza pasi rakasvibirira

Kutonga kwekutonga

Matanho ekuongorora ndeekutonga mune zvakasikwa pachiyero chenyika kana munharaunda. Mabhizinesi anosungirwa kunyoresa kusvibisa, zvinhu zvine njodzi zvinoshandiswa uye zvinoburitswa. Sangano rekuongorora rine simba rekuunganidza mutero, kubhadharisa faindi uye kumisa kugadzirwa kana marara akadarika chikumbaridzo chinobvumidzwa. 

Kune makambani ane hombe emission sosi semagetsi ekupisa, simende, metallurgy, bepa. Kudzora kusvibiswa kwemhepo ndiyo mhinduro yakabatanidzwa. Kusanganisira tekinoroji, midziyo yekurapa kupera kwepombi uye inogona kudzora kunaka kwerukova rwemarara, inosangana nemiyero yemarara mukati mezvakatipoteredza ... Nemabhizinesi madiki nemisha yekugadzira, zvinodikanwa kubata maitiro nemazvo kana usina. kugona kutenga advanced processing equipment. 

Iwo marongero eemission standards emudhudhudhu nemota anochinjwa zvichienderana nemiganhu. Uye mota dziri kutora chikamu mukutenderera dzinofanirwa kunge dziine simba rezita rekugadzira mota uye bhizinesi rekunze.

Pamwe chete nekukura kwemaguta, kuwanda kwemotokari kunowedzera. Kuzarisa panguva yega yega yekumhanyisana kunokonzera hutsi hwakawanda neguruva, kunyanya muHanoi neHo Chi Minh Guta. Naizvozvo, Ministry of Transport inotora matanho kudzora uye kudzora traffic panguva yepamusoro-soro kuti ikurumidze traffic. Kurudzirai vanhu kushandisa zvifambiso zveveruzhinji kuderedza kutsvikinyidzana uye hutsi.

Kuvandudzwa kwemidziyo yekuongorora mhando yemhepo

Tsvagurudza, shandisa uye gadzira yakaderera mutengo wekutarisa system. Shandisa Internet yezvinhu (IOT) tekinoroji. Inosanganisira kutsvagisa nekuvandudza kwehardware, zvishandiso uye kutengeserana kwezvigadzirwa. Gadzira software yekushandisa uye kubata ekutarisa maturusi. Vaka dhatabhesi nechinangwa chekudzidza mhando yemhepo. Inopa kure kure nemhepo yemhando yekutonga hardware mhinduro kuburikidza nemaapuro. 

  • Kubvunza, kugadzira uye kuisa mukati uye kunze kwemhepo yemhando yekutarisa masisitimu.
  • Tora masampuli ekutarisa emhando yemhepo kuti ugare uchiongororwa.
  • Kudzidzira, kudzidzisa uye kuvaka modular modular emhando yemhepo yekutarisa masampuli uchishandisa IoT.
  • Kudyidzana pakati pemapoka ekuvandudza mhedzisiro yekutsvaga.

Matanho ekuronga

Vakai nzvimbo dzemadhorobha dzakasvibira mumaguta. Deredzai miti mumapaki emaindasitiri mukati meguta, pakupera kwegwara remhepo, kure nevanhu vemazuva ese-hupenyu hwemvura matsime uye zviri nani kuvaisa kure neguta. Chengeta chete makambani anoshandira zvinodiwa nevanhu zuva nezuva. 

Kuderedza kuwanda kwekusvibiswa kwemhepo, kudyara miti ibasa rave richiitwa kwemakore akawanda. Miti inobatsira vanhu photosynthesize uye kutora CO2 mumhepo, kunyange kuchengeta huruva pamashizha. Pamusoro pezvo, inewo mhedzisiro yekutora mwaranzi yezuva, inonwisa ruzha uye kugadzira madhorobha akasvibira. Naizvozvo, ndapota chengetedza miti uye gadzira mararamiro egirinhi pamba pako chaipo. 

Matanho ehunyanzvi

Shandisa teknolojia yakachena 

Kubva padanho rekudyara, zvinokurudzirwa kuti usarudze mutsara unowirirana nemidziyo yekurapa yekusvibisa. Isa mberi mitsara yemazuva ano yetekinoroji. Semuenzaniso, kugadzira simende kunofanirwa kusarudza tekinoroji yehuni yekutenderera nenzira yakaoma. Iine multistage calcium nitriding uye heat exchanger tower. 

Shandura maitiro ekugadzira anosvibisa ane mashoma anosvibisa. Semuenzaniso, kutsiva kukuya kwakaoma nekukuya kwemvura mukugadzira simende. Chenesa makanda nekuputika mublaster yakavharwa kana musanganiswa wejecha remvura pane jecha rakaoma. Tsiva zvinhu zvinokuvadza nependi inonyungudika nemvura. Shandisa peturu isina lead, tsvaga dzimwe nzira dzeasbestos...

Kubata kwemhepo

Mhosva zhinji dzekushandisa dzakachena tekinoroji hadzina kukwanisa kuzadzisa emission standard. Naizvozvo, zvinodikanwa kushandisa mudziyo wekudzora kudzivirira Kusvibiswa kwezvakatipoteredza: guruva sefa midziyo uye ine muchetura gasi degassing mudziyo. 

Dust sefa yemidziyo yakakamurwa kuita mapoka mana zvichienderana nemusimboti wekushanda:

Muchimiro chesimba rinokwevera zvinhu pasi  By inertia Nerudzi rwesefa Maererano nemagetsi emagetsi
-Kushandisa simba rinokwevera zvinhu pasi, guruva rakaomarara rinogara uye rakaparadzana nemhepo. Nyore mhando yekushomeka kwekuita uye nzvimbo yakakura inogarwa.
-Inowanzo shandiswa kubata primary filter coarse guruva nehombe yemhepo. 
-Kushanda pamusimboti wekutora mukana weiyo inertial simba reguruva particles, kuparadzanisa nemhepo kana kuyerera uku kuchichinja. Muchimiro chemadutu, zvinhu zvine nhovo...
-Chishandiso chinoshandiswa zvakakurumbira nekuda kwekugadzikana kwayo, kupusa uye kugona kwepamusoro pane giravhiti rudzi. 
-Kubva pakubata, coarse guruva mafirita kuburikidza ne membrane maitiro, inertial kudhumhana. Guruva rakanaka rinopatsanurwa kuburikidza nekupararira uye kukwezva kwe electrostatic.
-Inopa yakakwirira kusefa kunyatsoshanda uye inochinja zvichienderana nerudzi rwesefa jira uye yekuchenesa maitiro
-Ionizes guruva rehutsi uye rinovaparadzanisa nekupfuura nemagetsi emagetsi. Iko kusefa kunyatsoita kwakakwira se98%.
Hunhu hwesefa hunoenderana nerudzi rwemhepo, chiyero chetsvina, uye kumhanya kwemhepo

Zvishandiso zvekurapa magasi ane muchetura uye kunhuwa kwakavakirwa pamisimboti mitatu: Kupisa, kunyura uye adsorption.

Maererano nekupisa Maererano nekutora Maererano adsorption
-Shandisa kupisa kana mhepo ine huwandu hwehupfu kana kushandisa alloy catalyst yakadai seplatinum, copper oxide kana chepfu yakaderera. Mutengo wekushandisa wakaderera -Kuchenesa mweya nekutora magasi ane muchetura nemakemikari anoita nemvura. Uye mvura ndiyo inonyanya kushandiswa -Adsorption yemagasi anokuvadza kana kunhuhwirira mune zvimwe zvakasimba adsorbed zvinhu zvakadai activated carbon, geolit ​​... Kurapa uku kunonyanya kushandiswa.

Matanho ekudzora kusvibiswa kwemukati

Deredza zvinosvibisa mweya

  • Vanhu vanofanirwa kudzikisira nekudzora kushandiswa kwemarasha ehuchi, kupisa parafini. Pane kudaro, shandisa magetsi, simba rezuva nemhepo kuderedza kusvibiswa kwemhepo.
  • Shandisa marasha mashoma, mafuta emafuta nekushandisa magetsi kudzivirira kusvibiswa kwemhepo, kunyanya SO2.
  • Kushandisa zvine musoro kweventilation system, kuwedzera uye kuderedza tembiricha uye humidity mumba. Chenesa fenicha nemakapeti nguva dzose. 
  • Shandisa mishonga yekugezesa uye mishonga yezvipembenene chete pane yakatenderwa rondedzero. Shandisa chete kana paine vanhu vashoma kana pasina mumba. Chengetedza zvinhu zvakaparadzana munzvimbo yakaparadzana, kuderedza kuchengetwa kwemakemikari mumba. 
  • Chengeta midziyo yemumba nemuhofisi zvakatsvinda uye zvine musoro. Semuenzaniso, nemichina inogona kugadzira ozone, ionizing mwaranzi semafotokopi, maprinta, microwave oveni, nezvimwewo. Inofanira kuiswa munzvimbo inofefetera.

Kuvandudza kushanda kwekushandisa air conditioner

Geza air conditioner nguva nenguva, kunyanya sefa. Rega iyo air conditioner ishande uye kudzivirira kusvibiswa muimba. Kunyanya kusvibiswa kwehupenyu. 

Kune mahofisi uye zvivakwa, panofanira kunge paine dhizaini yemhepo inofefetera. Yakatenderwa neane masimba. Kunyanya kukoshesa kunofanira kubhadharwa kune maitiro emhepo yakawanda, huwandu hwemhepo yakachena, nzvimbo yekutora mhepo, kurongeka kwekutora uye kutora kwemhepo. Paunenge uchishandisa mwedzi mitanhatu kubva panguva yakashandiswa chivakwa, nguva yacho ine magasi anokuvadza zvakanyanya senge VOCs, anobva kuzvinhu zvitsva zvekuvaka, midziyo yemukati, uye magadzirirwo emhepo. 

Air conditioner kuchenesa
Nguva dzose kuchenesa air conditioner kunobatsira kuderedza uye kudzivirira kusvibiswa

Pamusoro pezvo, munhu wega wega anofanira kuzvidira kuita kuchengetedza zvakatipoteredza. Shanda zvinongoita nemaitiro akareruka emazuva ese. Semuenzaniso, dyara 1 imwe muti kumba, usapisa tsvina zvisina tsarukano, rongedza marara ... Kubatsira pakuchengetedzwa kwezvakatipoteredza, kuvandudza kunaka kwekubuda kwakachena. Batsira kuchengetedza hutano hwako uye hweavo vakakukomberedza.  

Mapurojekiti chaiwo uye zvidzidzo zvave uye zviri kuitwa

Munguva ye2014 - 2019, Research Center for Climate Change uye Climate Change - P. ONKK & Climate Change - yakaita zvirongwa zvepasi rose zvina nemasangano anotungamira akadai seJICA (Japan), Greenid (NGO), GIZ (Germany). .Parizvino muVietnam nepasirese, kune mapepa ekutsvagisa nezvemhando yemhepo:

  • Ministry-level chirongwa "Tsvaga, tarisa kukanganisa kwekusvibiswa kwemhepo pahutano hweveruzhinji uye kuverenga kugona kugashira kubuda munzvimbo yega yega yeHo Chi Minh Guta". Nguva: 2019-2020.
  • Sayenzi uye tekinoroji basa "Kuongororwa kwemamiriro ekunze mudunhu reTien Giang". Nguva yekushandisa: 2019-2020.
  • Sayenzi uye tekinoroji basa "Gadzira hurongwa hwekuita kweChibvumirano cheParis pamusoro pekushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze muguta. Ho Chi Minh Guta". Nguva: 2018-2019.
  • Project "Kuongorora kukanganisa kwekushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze pakufambisa uye kugadzirisa matanho ekushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze: RR3 HCMC project". Inotsigirwa neADB. Nguva: 2017-2018.
  • Project "Tsvakurudzo uye kuongororwa kwezvakakanganiswa zvezvidyarwa zvemagetsi zvinopisa pahutano hwemhepo muTra Vinh province, Vietnam". Nguva: 2017-2018.
  • Sayenzi uye tekinoroji basa "Gadzira kusvibiswa kwemhepo kuparadzira mepu yezviitiko zvetraffic uye kugadzirwa kwemaindasitiri muHo Chi Minh Guta". Nguva: 2017-2018
  • Sayenzi uye tekinoroji basa "Gadzira modhi yekufambisa kusvibiswa kwemhepo uye gadzira mhinduro dzekuchengetedza mhepo nharaunda yekusimudzira kwakasimba kweCan Tho guta". Nguva: 2016-2017.
  • Project "Yakachena Air Plan yeCan Tho guta, Vietnam"/ German International Cooperation (GIZ), Germany uye Yakachena Air Asia. Nguva: 2015 - 2017.

Masangano pamusoro pekuchengetedza nharaunda yemhepo munyika uye muVietnam 

EC

Basa reEC (Environment Canada) nderekutungamirira mitemo yezvakatipoteredza uye zvirongwa, uye kuchengetedza zvinogona kuvandudzwa uye zviwanikwa, zvakadai sevhu, mvura, mhepo, mhuka, zvirimwa nemhuka. Zvakatipoteredza Canada zvakare inobata nyaya dzepasirese dzezvakatipoteredza, chenesa kuraswa kwemafuta, tsvina ine ngozi. The EC's enforcement division yakapa zvikumbiro zana nemakumi manomwe nenhanhatu zvekutevedzwa kwechiito pasi peEHWH RMR, zvizhinji zvacho zvichiri kuitika.

ICLEI

Sangano reInternational Council of Local Environmental Initiatives ICLEI yakavambwa muna 1990 sesangano repasi rose rehurumende dzenzvimbo rakazvipira kusimudzira nharaunda. Parizvino, kune anopfuura 1200 maguta nemataundi eICLEI sangano munyika dzinopfuura makumi manomwe. ICLEI yakapawo ruzivo pamwe nerutsigiro runoshanda, zvirongwa zvakagadzirirwa munharaunda kuchengetedza zvakatipoteredza.

PEMSEA

PEMSEA (Environmental Management Association for the Seas of East Asia) yakatangwa neUnited Nations Development Program mu 1994. Philippines ndiyo nyika inogamuchirwa uye inofunga nezvekusvibiswa kwegungwa mumvura yeEast Asia, Strait yeSingapore, Strait yeMalacca. PEMSEA yasvika zvibvumirano zvakawanda zvenyika nedunhu seBohai Sea Declaration, Manila Bay Declaration, Putrajaya Declaration.

PEMSEA
PEMSEA - Sangano Environmental Management kuEast Asia Seas

GEF

182 nhengo dzehurumende dzakasvika pachibvumirano chekuumba Global Environment Fund muna 1991 kugadzirisa nyaya dzezvakatipoteredza. GEF inopihwa rubatsiro nenyika dzichiri kusimukira muzvirongwa zvine chekuita nekuparara kwevhu, kushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze, ozone layer... GEF inoshanda sesangano rezvemari rakazvimirira, riri pasi pekanzuru yeGEF.

Project on land management system

Ichi chirongwa chenguva refu chekutsvagisa magariro nesainzi chakagadzirwa pasi pechirongwa cheInternational Human Aspects of Global Environmental Change chirongwa. Chirongwa ichi chakatangwa muna 2009 nechinangwa chekutarisana nematambudziko ekuchinja kwezvakatipoteredza. Kubva ipapo, tora matanho ekuderedza. Iyo Earth Governance Project Network System ine network yepasirese.

IPCC

IPCC, inozivikanwawo seIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, yakavambwa muna 1988 neWorld Meteorological Organisation neUnited Nations Environment Programme. Chinangwa chesangano ndechekupa kuongororwa kwesainzi kwakadzama kwenjodzi dzinokonzerwa nekushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze uye nharaunda kubva kumabasa evanhu. IPCC inoburitsawo mishumo yakakosha ine chekuita nekuita nemazvo kurwisa shanduko yemamiriro ekunze.

IPCC
IPCC - Kanzuru Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

AMMSA

Nekuchengetedzwa kwezvakatipoteredza sechirongwa chikuru, AMMSA kana African Maritime Safety and Security Agency inogara ichironga zviitiko zvekuongorora nekutsvaga kuti vauye nemhinduro dzakanakisa dzenharaunda yegungwa.

Helcom

Helsinki Council (Helcom) ine 9 nyika dzeEurope, chinangwa chikuru chekuchengetedza Gungwa reBaltic. Nhengo yega yega ine kubatana kwakasimba uye chisungo chekuzadzisa zvinangwa zvakafanana.

EPA

Iyo US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) inodzidza mhedzisiro yehydraulic fracturing pa kusvibiswa kwemvura. Kupera kwechidzidzo ichocho ndiko kumhanyisa shanduko, mitemo mitsva inobata zvakanaka indasitiri yehydraulic. Vatsvagiri veEPA vakatarisawo kukanganisa kwekuteuka kwemvura pamusoro, kuraswa kwemarara, uye tsvina.

EPA
EPA - Bureau American kuchengetedzwa kwezvakatipoteredza

WildAct

WildAct yakatangwa muna 2013, pasi pehutungamiri hwaMs. Nguyen Thi Thu Trang - muchengeti wekuchengetedza ane mipiro yakawanda. Zviitwa zveWildACT dzidzo uye kuparadzira ruzivo kusimudzira ruzivo rwevanhu veVietnamese. Nekudaro, zvichibatsira kunzwisisa zvirinani njodzi dzekuwana purofiti kubva mukutambura kwemhuka dzesango. Motto yeWildAct: kuchengetedza zvisikwa uye mhuka kuchengetedza hupenyu hwevanhu. Iri sangano rinonyatso kubatana pakati pevechidiki nemisangano yepasi rose yemhuka dzesango pasi rose.

WWF Vietnam

Zviitiko zvinojairika zvakaita sePasi Nguva, Chenesa mahombekombe - Sevha gungwa, mazuva makumi matatu ekunetsa - batanidza nenyika… zvese zvakarongwa neWFF Vietnam. WWF's panda logo inofanira kunge yakajairika kune vechidiki. Iri sangano rinotarisa pazvinhu zvina zvikuru: kuchengetedza zvisikwa zvakasiyana-siyana, kusimudzira kugadzirwa kwemagetsi emvura, kupindura kushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze uye kuvandudza kushanda kwenzvimbo dzakachengetedzwa. Iri nderimwe remasangano makuru uye ekare ekuchengetedza kwezvakatipoteredza pasi rose. Naizvozvo, zviitwa zveWWF macro-level, zvine chekuita neakavanzika, ehurumende uye masangano emuno.

Shanduko

Iyi NGO yakavambwa muna 2013, chinangwa chikuru ndechekuchengetedza nharaunda kuburikidza nemitambo midhiya inoyevedza yakaita semitambo, mashoo, mifananidzo, mavhidhiyo. Unogona kuve munhu anozvipira kutsigira mapurojekiti eCHANGE zvemagariro zviri nyore.

AFEO

Sangano rekuita kwezvakatipoteredza rinotanga kubva kukirabhu yemabhasikoro yezvakatipoteredza. Nechinangwa chikuru chekudzidzisa uye kusimudzira ruzivo rwemunhu wega wega nezve kuchengetedzwa kwezvakatipoteredza, AEFO yakavaka zvirongwa zvakawanda pane yakasvibira yekugara nharaunda, bhasikoro zviitiko, kudyara miti, kunyora nezvekuchengetedzwa kwezvakatipoteredza. , kana zvakatipoteredza Chirungu makosi. 

AFEO
AFEO - Sangano rekuita kwezvakatipoteredza

Ngatizviitei

Kutanga kubva pamushandirapamwe wekuunganidza marara weEstonia muna 2008, Let's Do It yawedzera kusvika kunyika zana negumi nembiri pasi rose, ikava nhengo yeUnited Nations Environment (UNEP).

Terminology uye pfungwa dzinoenderana

  1. Njodzi fungidziro yeukoshi hwekukuvara kwenjodzi, kuburikidza nekuongororwa kwezvingangoitika kana chiitiko chikaitika. Iyo US Geological Survey inoverengera njodzi vachishandisa fomula: R = F(Pc.Cv). Ipo F: ngozi coefficient; R: njodzi mumari 'Pc: mukana wekuitika mukati megore re1; Cv ndiko kukuvadzwa kwakakonzerwa nezviitiko.
  2. The greenhouse gas emission quota huwandu hwemagasi egreenhouse ayo nyika yega yega inotenderwa kuburitsa mumhepo (sezviri muchibvumirano chepasirese chakakodzera).
  3. Emissions inokonzeresa greenhouse effect magasi anokanganisa kuchinjana kwekupisa pakati penyika nenzvimbo yakapoteredza, zvichiita kuti tembiricha yemhepo yakapoteredza nyika idziye.
  4. Total suspended dust (TSP) ihuwandu hwehuruva zvidimbu zvine dhayamita yeaerodynamic isingasviki kana kuenzana ne100mm.
  5. Dust Dust PM10 ihuwandu hwehuruva dzakamiswa zvine dhayamita remhepo riri pasi kana kuenzana negumi mm.
  6. PM2,5 huruva ihomwe yehuruva yakaturikwa ine dhayamita yeaerodynamic isingasviki kana kuenzana ne2,5 mm.
  7. Guruva rinofemerwa iguruva muchikamu chesaizi ine dhayamita yeaerodynamic isingasviki kana yakaenzana ne5 mm.
  8. Sedimentation guruva iguruva rinoiswa panzvimbo dzakaita semichina, midziyo, uye mafekitori.

Leave a Reply

Your kero e haangazozikamwi ichibudiswa. Raida minda anozivikanwa *