Iyo yazvino dhizaini yechikoro zviyero uye zviyero

Dzidzo ndeimwe yeminda inogara ichifarirwa nevanhu vazhinji. Kudyara mukuvaka, kugadziridza nekugadzira zvikoro zvinoenderana nezviyero kunobatsira kuvandudza hurongwa, manejimendi, uye mhando yekudzidzisa yezvikoro nevadzidzisi. Uyezve, kuve nechokwadi chekuchengetedzwa kwevadzidzi kunobatsira vabereki kunzwa vakachengeteka.

Zvazvino dhizaini yechikoro zvinodiwa

Dhizaini yechikoro munguva yakapfuura yaingova makirasi madiki, akagadzirwa zviri nyore uye asina zvechizvino-zvino zvekutsigira kudzidzisa. Nekuvandudzwa kwesainzi uye tekinoroji pamwe chete nekuwedzera kwezvishuwo zvevanhu, zvinodiwa pakugadzira zvikoro maererano nehunyanzvi hwekuita, nzvimbo yekirasi, nzvimbo, midziyo ... inoda kuzadzisa zviyero zvakanyanya.

dhizaini yechikoro
Chimiro chechikoro chekugadzira chakakosha kune chero chizvarwa

Kunyanya, munharaunda yedzidzo, kuchengeteka ndiyo inonyanya kukosha. Naizvozvo, zviyero zvemazinga akasiyana edzidzo akasiyana zvakare. Semuenzaniso, pachikoro chechidiki chepuraimari, kirasi inogona kuvakwa kusvika pauriri hwe 2. Asi chikoro chepakati chakanyanya kukura uye chinogona kukwira kusvika pauriri hwe 3,4 neXNUMX. Izvi zvinochengetedza hutano hwevana pamwe nenjodzi dzekupukunyuka kwakachengeteka kana moto kana kuputika. Saka maererano nemirairo yazvino, dhizaini yezvikoro inoda kutevedzera izvo zviyero.

Dhizaini zviyero zvezvikoro zvine nhanho yekutanga

Chikamu chekushandisa

Zvinoenderana nezviyero zveVietnamese TCVN 8793:2011 pazvikoro zvepuraimari - dhizaini zvinodiwa. Chiyero chinoshanda kuchikoro chepuraimari, kirasi yepuraimari muzvikoro zvematanho akawanda. Makirasi epuraimari ari muzvikoro zvebhodhingi zvemadzinza madiki, zvikoro zvakakosha uye mamwe masangano edzidzo. Inovhara makirasi kubva 1st kusvika 5th giredhi.

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General mitemo

Zvikoro zvinofanirwa kuenderana nekuronga network network, zvichisangana nezvinodiwa zvenzvimbo yemagariro nehupfumi. Batsira vadzidzi kuti vave nemamiriro ezvinhu ekuti vaende kuchikoro. Chinangwa zvigaro makumi matanhatu neshanu kusvika makumi masere zvevanhu zana.

Zvikoro zvinogona kuita makirasi makumi matatu, nhamba yevadzidzi ishoma pane kana kuenzana ne30.

dhizaini yechikoro nechigaro
Zvinodiwa zvehuwandu huwandu hwezvigaro mukirasi yezvigaro makumi matatu

Saizi yechikoro chebhodhingi inotarwa zvinoenderana nemamiriro chaiwo uye yakagadzirwa zvinoenderana nemabasa ayo.

Kuvaka zvikoro zvepuraimari, zvepuraimari muzvikoro zvepamusoro zvine mwero wakawanda wedzidzo. Kugara munzvimbo imwe chete yevhu asi kuita mabasa akasiyana edanho rega rega.

Yakagadzirwa nechiyero chevanhu, maindasitiri uye emaguta ehunyanzvi hwekuvaka. 

Kukosheswa kunopihwa kune yepamusoro-soro nhanho yekuvaka yebhuroko rechikoro kana paine zvakawanda zvakasiyana zvekuvaka.

Ita shuwa kuchengetedzwa kwehupenyu uye hutano hwevadzidzi. Inofanirwa kufunga nezvekudiwa kwekubvuma vadzidzi vakaremara uye kutevedzera zvinodiwa nechiyero. 

Kumbira nzvimbo yekuvaka

Zvinodiwa panzvimbo yekuvaka 

Iyo nyika yekuvaka chikoro yakanakira traffic uye yakachengeteka kune vadzidzi

Yakarongwa mumakomini nemawadhi. Maererano nechirongwa chakabvumirwa. Kureruka, kuchengetedza traffic uye yakanaka drainage. Iva nechokwadi chehutsanana hwezvakatipoteredza, kwete pedyo nemafekitari ane ruzha kana tsvina ine muchetura. Simba uye mvura yakakwana. Inofanirwa kuve nefenzi yekudzivirira ine hurefu hwe> 1,5m. 

Nharaunda inodiwa yekuenda kuchikoro mumaguta, madhorobha, nenzvimbo dzemaindasitiri i <0,5 km. Nzvimbo dzemudhorobha nemaruwa <1km. Nzvimbo ine mamiriro ehupfumi ndeye <2km. 

Nzvimbo yenzvimbo yekuvaka zvikoro muguta uye commune i6m2/mudzidzi. Nzvimbo dzine makomo, nzvimbo dzekumaruwa i10m2/mudzidzi. Kana iwe ukadzidza 2 zvikamu / zuva, nzvimbo yacho ichawedzerwa ne25% kana ichienzaniswa neyakajairwa.

Zvinodiwa zvenzvimbo yese

Chikoro ichi chinosanganisira: makirasi, makamuri ekufunda, vashandi vekutonga, nzvimbo dzekutamba, zvimbudzi, nzvimbo dzekupaka uye nzvimbo dzakajairwa kana zvichidikanwa.

Imba yese inoda makamuri akapatsanurwa

Layout yakashandiswa nzvimbo: Kuvaka kunoshanda =< 40%, kuvaka gadheni>= 40% kana pedyo nepaki, kuderedza 10%, traffic kufamba> = 20%. 

Haina kugadzirwa kuvaka chikoro chakakura kudarika 3 pasi. Kana ichivaka zvimwe, inofanirwa kuchengetedza kuchengetedzwa uye nyore kutiza kana paine chiitiko.

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Architectural solution zvinodiwa

Rampu yevadzidzi vakaremara vachishandisa mawiricheya ine mutsetse we1/14 kusvika 1/22. Kureba kwemateru kubva pa3m kusvika ku5m. Iyo rampu hupamhi haisi pasi pe1200mm.

Nzira dzekufamba nemasitepisi dzinoda kuitwa maererano nehupamhi uye mutsetse

Mukova une hurefu hwe =<150 mm. Nhanho hupamhi> = 300mm, kana anopfuura 3 nhanho, pane handrails ane dhayamita kubva 25mm kusvika 30mm akaiswa pakureba kwete mukuru kupfuura 900mm.

Masitepisi anofanirwa kuve nechokwadi chekuteremuka kwe22o kusvika 24o, nhanho urefu <= 150mm, upamhi> = 300mm. Masitepisi ebetsero ane hupamhi>= 1,2 m. Pauriri hwevadzidzi vanosvika mazana maviri, hupamhi i>= 200m uye kana paine vadzidzi vanopfuura mazana maviri, inofanira kunge iri > = 1,8m.

Technical system zvinodiwa

Iyo yemvura uye dhiraivha system inoda kusangana neTCVN 4513: 1988 zviyero kuti ive nechokwadi chekudya kwemhando maererano neBazi rezvehutano. Mapombi emvura nemapombi emvura haafanire kuburitswa pasi pesirin'i uye anofanirwa kunge aine chivharo chakachengeteka chekuvhara maererano neTCVN 4474: 1987. 

Iyo yekuvhenekesa sisitimu inofanirwa kuenderana neTCXD 29:1991 uye TCXD 16:1986. Isa pamberi pechiedza chechisikigo, nepo chiedza chekugadzira chinofanirwa kugadzirwa nenzira yakafanana uye kushandisa magirobhu efluorescent ane chena spectrum. Mwenje tsika dzinoenderana neTCVN 7114-1: 2008, TCVN 7114-3: 2008.

Chikoro chepamusoro chekugadzira zviyero uye zviyero

Chikamu chekushandisa

Gadzira zvikoro zvepamusoro maererano nemaitiro

TCVN 8794: 2011 pazvikoro zvesekondari - dhizaini zvinodiwa. Iyi chiyero inoshandiswa pakugadzira nekugadzirisa zvikoro zvejunior high. Inoshanda kuzvikoro zvepamusoro zvine mazinga mazhinji edzidzo, bhodhi uye chikamu-bhodhi zvikoro zvemadzinza madiki.

General mitemo

Chikoro chepakati chevanhu 1000, shandisa kubva pazvigaro makumi mashanu neshanu kusvika makumi manomwe. Iyo yakanyanya dhizaini makirasi makumi mana nemashanu uye nhamba yevadzidzi haipfuure makumi mana neshanu.

Chikoro chepamusoro chevanhu 1000, nyorera kubva pazvigaro makumi mana nemashanu kusvika makumi matanhatu

Dhizaina zvinhu zvine mazinga akasiyana ekuvaka, ane yakanyanya kukoshesa yakapihwa kupurojekiti. Ita shuwa hutano nekuchengetedzeka kwevadzidzi. Uye tichifunga nezvekudiwa kwekugamuchira vadzidzi vakaremara maererano neTCVN. 

Kumbira nzvimbo yekuvaka

Nzvimbo yepaiti inoda kuva nechinzvimbo chepamusoro, nzvimbo yakapoteredza yakachengeteka uye haina kukonzera ruzha

Nyika yacho iri nyore uye ine traffic yakachengeteka. Inokodzera kuronga, ine nzvimbo yakati sandara yakakwirira uye inonetsa kufashama. Hutsanana hwezvakatipoteredza, kwete pedyo nenzvimbo dzinokonzera ruzha uye tsvina ine muchetura. Chengetedza mvura nemagetsi uye upe network yakajairika.

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Nzvimbo shoma: 

Rural uye makomo nzvimbo 10m2 / mudzidzi

Guta uye commune nzvimbo ndeye 6m2 / mudzidzi

Architectural solution zvinodiwa

Tafura 1: Clearance kureba kwemakamuri echikoro chesekondari

Room Urefu
Kirasi, manejimendi, canteen, nzvimbo yekugara 3.3 kusvika 3.6
Vhara imba yekudzidza  3.6 kusvika 3.9
Chimbudzi, imba yekuchengetera 2.7
Masitepisi, mikoto 2.4

Kureba kwekubvisa kubva pasi kusvika padenga kunopedzwa, kana kuvaka kwakaderera, zvino verenga urefu kubva pasi kusvika pasi. Makirasi ezvidzidzo akakura kudarika 3,3 m.

Tafura 2: Miyero yenzvimbo yemakirasi uye makamuri ezvidzidzo

Room Nzvimbo (m2/mudzidzi)
Mukirasi 1.5
Dhipatimendi reRuzivo, Biology, Chemistry, Fizikisi, Chirungu
-Chikoro chepamusoro
-Common

1.85
2
Technology room
-Chikoro chepamusoro
-Common

2.25
2.45

Kana kugadziridza nzvimbo yekamuri yezvidzidzo, inoderedzwa neinopfuura 12%. Laboratory, chemistry, fizikisi, tekinoroji inochengetwa zvinoenderana nemirairo. 

Tafura 3: Chiyero chenzvimbo yeimba ine zvinangwa zvakawanda

Room Nzvimbo (m2) Zviyero (m)
Kureba Wide Cao
Imba inosiyana-siyana
-Small
-Big

288
540

24
30

12
18

7
9
Warehouse 12 - -  
Imba yekupfeka
-Mukadzi
-Murume

16
16
-
-
-
- -
-

3
3

Technical system zvinodiwa

Dhizaini yekuvhenekesa kwekamuri zvinoenderana nezviyero TCXD 29:1991 uye TCXD 16:1986. Direction iri Maodzanyemba, Maodzanyemba kwakadziva kumabvazuva kubva kuruboshwe rwevadzidzi. Iwo mashoma ekuvhenekesa maitiro uye mwenje mhando inoenderana neTCVN 7114-1:2008, TCVN 7114-3:2008 uye inotevera tafura:

Tafura 4: Kuvhenekera zviyero uye chiedza chemhando

Room Indekisi yekupa ruvara (Ra) Glare Index (URG) Simba Density Max (W/m2) Chikwata chechiedza  Attention
1.Kirasi           
-General mwenje -Kuvhenekera bhodhi -Informatics kamuri 80 19 12 300 Vhenekera patafura
80 19 20 500 Anti-glare lighting
80 19 12 300  
2.Imba yeDhipatimendi          
-Laboratory -Imwe chidzidzo kamuri 80 19 20 500  
80 19 15 300  
3.Library          
-Mutengo bhuku -Imba yekuverengera 80
80
19
19
12
12
200
300
Vertical illuminance
Musangano 80 19 12 300  
4. Imba yemukuru wechikoro, kanzuru, imba yekutandarira 80 22 12 300  
5.Multi-chinangwa imba 80 22 12 300  
6. Makoridho uye masitepisi 80 22 4 100  

Huwandu hwemagirobhu emwenje kubva pa8 kusvika ku10, akaiswa akachinjika mukirasi. Shandisa magirobhu emhando yepamusoro, anoita zvemhando yepamusoro, ane hushamwari kwezvakatipoteredza uye ane mari. 

Imba yefizikisi ine AC system. Pamusoro pekuchinja, bhiriji rinongofanira kunge riine 1 kana 2 zvigadziko zvemagetsi uye kurongeka paurefu kupfuura 1,5m. Gadzira tambo dzemagetsi zvinoenderana neTCXD 25:1991, TCXD 27: 1991, TCXDVN 394:2007. 

Air conditioning system, kuburikidza neISO standard TCVN 5687:2010. Inoda sirin'i feni, yekufemesa feni.

Moto kudzivirira system maererano neTCVN 2622: 1995. Kune tangi hombe remvura yekuona kudzvanywa kwemoto kana pasina kukwana.

Hupamhi hudiki hwekufamba, makorido uye masitepisi anotsanangurwa sezvizvi:

Tafura 5: Yakajairika hupamhi hudiki hwenzira yekutiza

Way Upamhi
Way 1.2
Masuo 1.2
Lobby 2.1
Ladder 1.8

Zviyero zvekugadzira zvikoro zvinoda kutevedzwa kuchengetedza hupenyu. Pamwe nekuzadzisa zvinodiwa zviri kuwedzera zvevanhu zvekubatsira vana kuti vave nenzvimbo yekudzidza yakanakisa. 

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