Miyero yemhando dzenheyo dzeimba mukuvaka uye imba nheyo maitiro

Nheyo chikamu chinokosha pakuvaka imba. Nheyo yakanaka, yakasimba ichave nechokwadi chekuvakwa kweimba yakasimba. Ita shuwa kuchengetedzwa kwemushandisi. Naizvozvo, pakuvaka imba, iwe unofanirwa kuve nekumwe kunzwisisa kwezviyero zve marudzi eimba nheyo. Izvi zvichakubatsira kudzora uye kubata kana hwaro hwemba hwakavakwa kune mwero kana kwete.

Mitemo yenheyo dzeimba

Single foundation standard

Zvipikiri zvimwechete ndeimwe yemhando dzakajairika dzezvipikiri uye dzinoonekwa zvakanyanya kumaruwa. Iyi nhevedzano yezvipikiri inowanzova pakati nepakati. Pazasi penheyo inogona kuita square, rectangular kana denderedzwa. Zvinoenderana nekugadzirwa uye chimiro chevhu munzvimbo iyoyo.

ndinovimba
Chii chinonzi single foundation design standard?

Parizvino, kune marudzi maviri akajairika enheyo imwe chete: nheyo imwe chete yakagadzirwa nematombo ematombo. Uye imwe nheyo yakagadzirwa kubva kune yakasimbiswa kongiri mbiru.

Nenheyo imwe chete yakagadzirwa nezvidhinha zvematombo. Nekuda kwechimiro chezvidhinha zvakawanda nematombo zvakaiswa pamwechete, hwaro humwe huchafanira kutakura hwaro hwakatarisana nefosi pasi penheyo. Naizvozvo, kuve nechokwadi kugadzikana. Izvo zvinodiwa kudzora chiyero chehurefu kusvika pahupamhi hwetsoka sekona α. kona αMax= 45o. Tichifunga kuti kana hwaro hurefu = 30cm, hupamhi hwenheyo hunofanirawo kuva hwakakura kupfuura> = 30 cm kuti ive nechokwadi chekubereka.

Nekudaro, iyi nzira yekuona hwaro yakaoma kuita nemazvo nekuti magadzirirwo enzvimbo imwe neimwe yevhu akasiyana. Naizvozvo, inowanzoshandiswa kuvaka diki 1-storey zvivakwa chete.

Yakasimbiswa kongiri imwe nheyo.

Ndiyo inonyanya kushandiswa rudzi rwembambo imwe chete nhasi. Iyo yakasimbiswa kongiri nheyo imwe inodururwa panzvimbo kuti iite chimiro chakafanana. Somugumisiro, hapana chikonzero chekuvimba nechiyero chekukwirira kusvika pasi penheyo. Zvisinei, rudzi urwu rwenheyo runoda pre-calculation kuti uone kureba kunonzwisisika uye kukura kwenheyo.

Pazasi pane formula yekuverenga mutoro wenheyo:

Pakati pembambo imwe chete: Ptb<= CHEAPtc

Eccentric single nail: PMax=<1.2Rtc

Mune izvo, Ptb uye PMax ndiyo yakanyanya uye avhareji yepasi kumanikidzwa. KUCHIPIRIRAtc ndiko kusimba kwepasi.

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Kusimba kwakaenzana kwevhu revhu kunoverengwa nemaitiro anotevera.

Rtc = m(A1/4.γ.b+B.q+Dc)

b: ndihwo hupamhi hwenheyo

q: ndiwo mutoro wenheyo

c: ndiyo yepasi unit inonamira simba

A1 / 4, B, D: Iyo coefficient zvichienderana nekona yemukati friction yevhu

m: nheyo inoshanda coefficient pasi pemamiriro ezvinhu

Kuburikidza neformula iyi, tinogona kuona izvozvo. Kuti uone chiyero chakasimbiswa kongiri imwe nheyo. Chokutanga pane zvose, zvakakosha kuti uone kunamatira kune ivhu rekuvaka. Kushanda uye kutakura kugona kwenheyo. Kamwe zvinhu zvinokanganisa mbambo zvave kuzivikanwa. Panguva iyoyo, zvichienderana nehuwandu hwepasi raunoda kuvaka, formula inoshandiswa kuverenga ukuru uye marongerwo enheyo imwe chete nechikonzero chine musoro.

Ice nheyo mitemo

marudzi eimba nheyo
Ndedzipi nheyo dzekugadzira zviyero zvemazaya echando?

Ice Claw Iyi mhando yenheyo inoratidzika yakakurumbira zvakanyanya mumataundi. Zvivakwa zvakaderera (kubva pa5 pasi pasi muVietnam). Iyi mhando yenheyo iri nyore kugadzira uye zvakare ine mari yakawanda. Zvisinei, panguva yekuvaka. Zvichiri kudikanwa kuve nechokwadi chezvinodiwa zvinhu zvakadai se:

  • Iyo yakajairwa tepi hwaro inofanirwa kuve nezvikamu zvitatu zvikuru: kongiri lining kubatsira kuchengetedza hwaro slab uye hwaro furemu. Nheyo yehwaro inochengetedza uye inogovera simba zvakaenzana. Uye pakupedzisira danda renheyo, rinobatanidza nheyo kuita bhuroka rimwe.
  • Iyo layer yekongiri inoshandiswa sehwaro hwaro ine hushoma ukobvu hwe100 mm.
  • Universal tepi tsoka saizi ndeye: 350mm x 900-1200 mm. Imo, iyo yakajairika nheyo danda inosvika 300mm x 500-700mm.
  • Iyo simbi inoshandiswa munheyo slab ine mashoma saizi ye Φ12a150. Zvichakadaro, simbi yenheyo danda ine zviyero zvinotevera: longitudinal simbi ine dhayamita ye6Φ (18-22). Zvichakadaro simbi yebhandi iri Φ8a150.

Mirwi nheyo mitemo

matanho ekuvaka nheyo
Miyero uye nzira dzekuvaka nheyo dzemurwi

Murwi hwaro Ndiyo imwe yezvinonyanya kushandiswa nheyo muzvivako zvine pasi rakapfava. Rudzi urwu rwenheyo rune zvikamu zviviri chete, hwaro hwaro uye murwi. Kunyanya, chikamu chemurwi chichasimwa zvakadzika muvhu kuti chitakure simba uye kuendesa simba pasi. Iyo mirwi chiteshi ichange ichitarisira kugovera uye kuparadzira simba kubva pakuvaka kusvika kumbiru dzenheyo.

Kuda iyo murwi hwaro kuunza yakanyanya kunaka. Kunze kwekuve nemadhirowa akadzama ehunyanzvi. Zvipikiri zvinoda kuzadzisa zvimwe zviyero:

  • Sarudza nzvimbo yekuvaka yenzvimbo yekuvaka.
  • Chimiro chemurwi chinoshandiswa. Nokudaro, verenga kugadzirisa uye kubereka kukwanisa kwemurwi.
  • Kufungidzira chimiro, nhamba yepasi, hukama pakati pepasi. Kubva ipapo, zvinokwanisika kuverenga uye kugovera nhamba inodiwa yemapiles epurojekiti.

Standard ye raft nheyo

muitiro manicure kumba
Raft nheyo dzinoshandiswa muzvivako zvakaderera

Claw ndiyo nheyo inoshandiswa muzvivako zvine 4 pasi kana pasi. Pamwe chete nazvo, mabasa ekuvaka anogona kunge aine dzimba dzepasi kana mabasa ari pasi pevhu. Dziri muvhu risina kudzika, faundesheni ichatapurwa zvikuru nenzvimbo yokuvaka. Naizvozvo, kana uchigadzira nekuvaka hwaro hwema raft, zvinodikanwa kusangana nemimwe mwero kuitira kuti hwaro hukwanise kumira zvakanyanya.

  • Iyo yakaderera kureba kweiyo nheyo slab ndeye 32 cm. Saizi yehwaro danda 300 × 700 mm.
  • Iyo ndiro yeheyo inofanira kugadzirwa kubva pazvikamu zviviri zvesimbi Φ2a12. Zvichakadaro, danda renheyo rinofanira kushandisa 200Φ (6-20) longitudinal simbi uye Φ22a8 bhandi simbi kuti iwane yakanakisisa yekutakura.
  • Concrete floor linings inoda kuve nekushomeka ukobvu hwe100 mm.
  • Hwaro hwaro hweiyo raft hwaro hune mana makuru marudzi: flat plate, inverted arch plate, box plate uye rib slab. Nechinyakare flat base plate. Plate urefu e = ⅙ kureba, uye chinhambwe chiri pakati pemakoramu chinofanira kunge chiri pasi pe4m. Iyo inverted arch inofanirwa kushandiswa chete mumabasa madiki. Uye arch inogona kuvakwa nezvidhinha chero e=(9 kureba + 0.032) m. Iyo bhokisi nheyo inogona kupa chimiro chakanakisa kutakura kugona uye kugovera kugadzirisa zvakaenzana pamusoro pevhu rese. Nekudaro, maitiro ekuvaka akaomarara anoda kuitwa nevashandi vane hunyanzvi.
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Pamusoro pemhando dzembambo dzataurwa pamusoro apa, kune mamwe marudzi mazhinji ezvipikiri zvaunogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezvazvo se: propeller claws, mukombe chipikiri, zvidhina hwaro..... Asi marudzi ese aya ezvipikiri unogona kudzidza kuburikidza nezvinyorwa zviri pa quatest peji pazasi.

Nzira yekugadzira misumari kumba

Kunyangwe imwe neimwe mhando yenheyo ine zviyero zvakasiyana, nzira dzekuvaka uye zvimiro. Nekudaro, maitiro ekugadzira marudzi ese enheyo dzemba anonyanya kufanana. Iyo manicure process ine nhanho gumi. Kuitwa kwakarurama kwematanho ari mukugadzirisa kuchaita kuti kuve nekugadzirisa kwakanakisisa uye kugadzikana kwenheyo.

B1: Geological survey panovakwa imba

Nhanho yekutanga pakugadzira hwaro ndeyekuongorora geology yenzvimbo yekuvaka, imba. Ongororo ye geological ichabatsira mugadziri kuziva kuti chii chiri pasi pepurojekiti iri kuda kuvakwa.

nheyo dzekugadzira mitemo
Kuita ongororo ye geological ndiyo nhanho yekutanga muhurongwa hwenheyo

B2: Sarudza iyo chaiyo chipikiri art chirongwa uye zvinhu

Mushure mekuona kugadzirwa kwepasi. Chinhu chinotevera icho kontrakta anofanirwa kuita ndechekusarudza hurongwa hwenheyo hunofanira kuvakwa uye zvinoenderana nehwaro zvinhu zvemhando yega yega. Izvi zvichava nechokwadi chekushandiswa kwakanakisisa kweiyo nheyo yekugadzirisa. Dzivisa kusarudza iyo isiriyo nheyo chimiro kuderedza hupenyu hwechivako.

B3: Kuchera makomba ehwaro

Paunenge uine hurongwa hwezvipikiri uye zvinhu. Panguva ino, mugadziri achaenderera mberi nekuchera gomba rekutanga. Zvinoenderana nehurongwa hunoshandiswa pakugadzira zvipikiri. Kondirakiti akachera gomba renheyo saizvozvo.

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B4: Gadzirisa gomba pamusoro

Pedzisa danho 3. Kontrakta inoda kutsetseka uye kuchenesa gomba repamusoro. Izvi zvinodzivirira zvakatipoteredza izvo zvinozokanganisa hwaro chimiro mune ramangwana. Uyewo nechokwadi chokuti nheyo inoshandiswa nenzira yakanakisisa.

B5: Tarisa kukwirira kwenheyo

Parallel to process of flattening the gomba surface. Kondirakiti anofanirwawo kutarisa hwaro hwaro asati aenderera mberi nekudira kongiri lining kune ese marudzi enheyo dzemba. Kuyedzwa kwekukwirira kunovimbisa hwaro hwakati sandara, hwakasimba.

B6: Dururira kongiri lining uye cheka murwi musoro

Mushure mekunge matanho ese ekuongorora uye kugadzirira kwehwaro makomba apedzwa. Panguva ino, kontrakta akatanga kudurura kongiri yenheyo yegomba. Mhando dzemafandesheni emba kunyangwe akasiyana muchimiro uye magadzirirwo. Nekudaro, iyo kongiri lining inowanzoitwa nenzira imwecheteyo. Concrete lining ine hushoma hukobvu hwe100 mm. Pamwe chete neizvozvo, iyo kongiri layer inoda kuve neyakati sandara uye yakatsetseka.

B7: Kujoinha nheyo formwork

Apo nheyo yekrete yakagadzikana zvachose. Panguva ino, kontrakta anoenderera mberi nekumisa furemu uye kujoina fomu reiyo nheyo yeimba. Iyo formwork mapaneru anoshandiswa anofanirwa kunge aine nzvimbo yakati sandara ine kusimba kwepamusoro. Iko kujoinwa kweformwork uye yakajairika nheyo ndiro inovimbisa chimiro uye hupenyu hurefu hwebasa.

mhando dzenheyo mukuvaka
Mhando dzese dzenheyo dzemba dzinofanirwa kubatanidzwa neformwork kuumba hwaro hwaro

B8: Dururira kongiri nheyo

Kana iyo nheyo yefomu yakatariswa kuve nechokwadi kuti inokodzera kuvaka hwaro. Kudira kongiri kuchatanga. Ikosi yekrete inosanganiswa mune imwe chiyero, pamwe chete nekuita kuti kongiri inofananidzwa uye yakavharwa pamapuranga ose esimbi eimba yapfuura. Izvi zvichabatsira nheyo nheyo kuchengetedza kugadzikana uye chisungo zvakasimba nekongiri lining

B9: Bvisa hwaro formwork

Iyo formwork yenheyo inogona chete kubviswa kana kongiri layer yasimba uye yasvika mazuva akakwana ezera. Nezvirongwa zvidiki. Iyo shoma nguva yekubvisa hwaro formwork mushure memazuva makumi maviri nemasere. Iyi nguva yakakwana kuti konkrete igare uye iwane chisungo chakasimba.

B10: Kugadziriswa kwekongiri yenheyo mushure mekudurura

Yakasiyana kubva pachikamu foundation wall Yakagadzirwa kuti ive yakavhurika-mhepo, nheyo yenheyo inowanikwa pakadzika pasi pevhu. Nokudaro, zvakatipoteredza zvichakanganisa zvakasimba chimiro chenheyo. Saka, mushure mekubvisa fomu. Munguva yekutanga, mugadziri anofanira kuita kurapa kwekongiri layer semuenzaniso nekudiridza. Kunwisa nheyo yekrete kuchabatsira nheyo kuchengetedza chimiro chechivako. Panguva imwecheteyo, kuderedza kupindira kwenharaunda yakapoteredza kusvika kune nheyo yeimba.

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