Miitiro yekucherechedza mukuita kwekudira makoramu ekongiri

Unhu hwekrete hunokanganisa zvakanyanya kunaka kwekuvaka. Naizvozvo, panguva yekudurura, vashandi vekuvaka vanofanirwa kutevedzera zviyero uye maitiro kudira kongiri mbiru kudzivirira kukanganisa kunogona kukonzera jolts kana kutsemuka.

1. Standard kongiri kudira mitemo

1.1 Asati adira

a, Tarisa kusimbiswa, formwork

Simbi yekusimbisa inosangana nemaitiro enzvimbo, huwandu, rudzi, kubatana, kureba, simbi yakasungwa maererano nekugadzira, haina ngura uye yakacheneswa.

Nyatsoongorora simbi uye formwork asati adira kongiri
Nyatsoongorora simbi uye formwork asati adira kongiri

Iyo formwork inoda kusangana nezvinodiwa zvehunyanzvi: Nzvimbo yehunde, chokwadi, kuramba kurasikirwa kwemvura, kongiri compaction, kunyanya:

  • Beam formwork: Yakatwasuka formwork, hapana warping, yakajairika danda pasi kureba
  • Column formwork: Hwaro hweformwork iri munzvimbo chaiyo yekudzivirira kudhumhana kana uchidira kongiri. Formwork columns ane anchors kudzivirira kubhuroka kana kurereka.
  • Floor formwork: Kutsauka, kureba kwepasi munzvimbo dzakawanda seyakajairwa

b, Kugadzirira nzira

Kuverengera huwandu hwemanpower, muchina uye zvishandiso kuti ive nechokwadi maitiro ekudira kongiri makoramu.

  • Kuverenga kwakarurama kwekudira nguva kongiri itsva
  • Kuverengerwa kwechirongwa chenzvimbo yekuvaka
  • Iva nechokwadi chekuchengeteka panguva yekuvaka
  • Gadzirira kuchenesa, kudira mvura kuchenesa formwork
  • Tarisa mold maererano nechiyero chehukuru, chimiro uye nguva yekushandiswa.
  • Tarisa scaffolding, kushanda pasi, kusimbisa, mapuranga emapuranga ekushanda pasi.
  • Tarisa huwandu uye kunaka kwezvinhu zvekuvaka zvakaita sesimbi nesimbi, simende, jecha nematombo. Kana zvisina kudaro, zvinokanganisa kunaka kwekrete.
Kunyatsoongorora zvinhu zvekuvaka zvinoenderana nezviyero
Kunyatsoongorora zvinhu zvekuvaka zvinoenderana nezviyero
  • Ongorora marudzi ese emichina nemidziyo yekuvakisa yakaita semisanganisi, pombi, kongiri compactor. Unofanira kushandisa tafura compactor kana uchida kudira kongiri pasi <30cm kana kudira uriri matanda. Iine pasi> 30cm uye ruzivo rwembiru, madziro nemadziro, shandisa rammer (inofambiswa nemagetsi, peturu), vibrating compactor.
  • Ona mamiriro ekunze, kana mvura ikanaya zuva iroro, unofanira kugadzirira zvimwe zvinhu zvakaita setefa, chivharo chekunaya kwemvura. Zvakare, tarisa iyo drainage system kudzivirira kudzikama kana ichangobva kudururwa kongiri.

1.2. Misimboti pakudira kongiri

Kongiri yakadirwa zvakanaka inofanirwa kutevedzera zvinotevera:

  • Iyo nzira yekudurura kongiri nguva dzose, pasina kuzeza kana kuvhiringwa zvisina tsarukano. Kana zvichidikanwa kumira, sarudza zvinzvimbo zvinokwanisa kumira nguva diki dzekukotama.
  • Details of madziro ane hurefu hwe >3m nema column ane hurefu hwe <5m akadirwa zvichiramba.
  • Ramba uchidurura 1,5m imwe neimwe iine column details <40cm side, kukora kwemadziro <15cm. Makoramu ese ane mabhandi ekusimbisa anopindirana.
  • Concrete kupora nekudzivirira, kudzivirira huruva, kusanaya uye kunyorova.
  • Paunenge uchimisa kuvaka, iva nechokwadi chekugadzirisa dunhu remakoramu nemadziro.
  • Tekinoroji zviyero zvine kongiri ukobvu zvinofanirwa kuve nechokwadi, zvinoenderana neradius inoshanda yematanda.
  • Kana concreting ikamiswa nekufamba kwenguva, pane akajairwa pamusoro pekurapa.
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1.3 Mushure mekudira kongiri

a, Misimboti yekubata kana uine dambudziko mumvura

Ongorora huwandu hwemvura inonaya kuti uone kuti inokanganisa zvakadii kunaka kwekongiri. Kubva ipapo, sarudzo inogona kuitwa kana kuramba ichidira kongiri.

  • Mvura shoma inogona kuenderera mberi nekuvaka semazuva ese
  • Mvura inonaya, inogara maminitsi makumi matatu - 30 awa, wozovhara ne canvas, apo mvura inomira, ramba uchivaka. Ngwarira kutarisa kuchengetedzwa kwemagetsi nemvura mitsetse, motokari dzekutakura, kongiri isina kupera.
  • Mvura yakanaya kwenguva refu, isingakwanise kumira muchikamu chimwe chete, yakamisa kuvaka zvachose. Kana mvura yamira, tarisa kunaka kwekongiri uye uve nechirongwa chekurapa chiri nani.
Mvura inonaya saka rega kudira kongiri
Mvura inonaya saka rega kudira kongiri

Pakumisa kuvaka, zvinodikanwa kugadzira flat stop circuit, perpendicular to the direction of compressive force transmission. yakasimbiswa kongiri chimiro. Izvo zvinodikanwa kumirira kuti kongiri isvike 25 daN / cm2 isati yaenderera mberi nekushandisa.

  • Kuchenesa, kudiridza simende pamusoro peiyo yekare kongiri layer kana uchidira kongiri itsva
  • Rova pamusoro kuti manye, chekerera zvidimbu zvekongiri isina kunaka, diridza simende pamusoro.
  • Shandisa additives kuti usunge kumira kwedunhu
  • Pre-imisa waya mesh munzvimbo yekumira

Panyaya dzisingagoni kugadziriswa, nzira yakanakisisa ndeyokudzirova kakawanda.

b, Standard yekubvisa formwork mushure mekudurura kongiri

Mushure mekudururira kongiri, ivo vanozoendeswa kune formwork sheet kuti vadzivirire. Kusvikira kongiri yanyatsooma uye yakasimba, bvisa fomu, iyo yakatarwa nguva miyero ndeiyi inotevera:

Concrete zvivakwa zvakasimba zvakakwana kuti zvigadzikane kwemavhiki matatu-3. Mune mamiriro e4-20 madhigirii Celsius, iyo formwork inogona kuburitswa. Kana uine nguva uye kuvakwa hakusi kwekukurumidzira, unogona kusiya kongiri kwenguva yakareba sezvinobvira.

Kazhinji mukumhanya-mhanya mukuvaka, vashandi vekuvaka vanobvisa formwork isati yasvika nguva yakatarwa. Somugumisiro, chimiro chacho chinoputsika, zvichiita tsaona. Concrete inosvika pahuremu hwayo (static load) simba mushure mekunge formwork yabviswa, asi zvinotora nguva kumisa mitoro yezvimwe midziyo (live load). Naizvozvo, ndapota teerera kuti uve nechokwadi chekuchengetedza kwete chepurojekiti chete, mushandisi asiwo mugadziri pachake.

Mitemo yekubvisa formwork mushure mekudurura kongiri

Muzviitiko apo zvakakosha kubvisa formwork pamberi pane standard. Inoda kutsigira zvivakwa zvakadai sematanda, pasi ... nesimbi, huni nenzira yakasimba kwazvo.

c, Maitiro ekugadzirisa kongiri

Nzira ye hydration, kuisa uye kuoma kwe simenti inoda mvura (inonzi kuporesa). Concrete kupora kunoitwa nekukurumidza kana iyo kongiri yepamusoro yakaoma zvakakwana uye haiputsi.

Mumamiriro ezuva, maawa mana mushure mekudurura kongiri, zvakakosha kuvhara pamusoro. Kudzivisa chiedza chezuva kuchachenesa pamusoro, zvichikanganisa zvakanyanya kusimba kwekupisa kwekongiri. Kana kuine zuva zvakanyanya, tembiricha yakakwira, shandisa naironi kana kanivhasi yakanyoroveswa nemvura kuisa pamusoro. Usabvumira kukurumidza kubuda. Kana kunze kuchinaya, hapasisina chikonzero chekudiridza zvakare, shandisa tarpaulin kuvhara kongiri.

  • Kwemazuva manomwe ekutanga, ramba uine hunyoro nguva dzose nekudiridza, kamwe chete maawa matatu. Pausiku mvura kanenge ka7. 
  • Kubva pazuva rechisere, kudiridza katatu pazuva kwakanaka, asi inoda kudiridzwa zvakakwana.
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Shandisa yakapfava misting system. Kana pachingova nemushonga wepfapfaidzo, gadzirisa sipidhi zvishoma nezvishoma, pfapfaidza uchikwira kuti mvura ipararire zvakaenzana uye zvishoma pazasi. Cherechedza usadira mvura zvakananga pane ichangobva kuomeswa kongiri pamusoro.

Mitemo yekushandisa mvura yekuchengetedza inofanirawo kusangana nezvinodiwa zvehunyanzvi semvura yakazara.

Dururira kongiri padenga remba rinogona kuvakwa, pombi yakarukwa 1 inorapa mvura.

Munguva yekurapa, usabvumira kongiri kuti iome chena. 

3. Standard hwaro kongiri kudira muitiro 

3.1 Kudurura nzira

Kubva pakutanga kweiyo nheyo yekusimbisa kudhirowa, nheyo yesimbi mesh inofanirwa kuiswa munzira kwayo. Kana kuvaka, vashandi kazhinji kuisa maererano ruzivo kuchatungamirira kutsauka, unofanira kudzivisa izvi kuitika.

Standard hwaro kongiri kudira muitiro
Standard hwaro kongiri kudira muitiro

Concrete ichaendeswa kunzvimbo yekudira nepombi kana nemotokari yemhando yepamusoro (wheelbarrow). Chiyero chekudira nheyo yekongiri panguva ino inzvimbo yakakodzera yechiyero chedhizaini, yakatsetseka kana inodiwa kugadzira kutsetseka kwekongiri.

Chenjerera kugondohwe kuitira kuti kongiri isanganiswe zvakaenzana muchimiro. Nemhaka yokuti kusungirirwa kunoyerera nyore, kana kusanganisa kongiri kunenge kwakaoma, unofanira kushandisa geji yehuni uye kuivhara maererano nechimiro chenheyo yekugadzirisa.

Nheyo yekudira kongiri nheyo iri munzvimbo iri kure kutanga, pedyo mushure. Kuti udzivise kukanganisa chinzvimbo, haufanirwe kumira zvakananga pamadziro efomati, asi unofanirwa kuisa pasi pekushanda pasi pegomba renheyo.

3.2 Mamwe manotsi pakudira zvipikiri

Usabvumira gomba renheyo kuti rifukidzwe nemvura kana uchidira kongiri. Kune dzakawanda zviitiko zvevashandi vekuvaka vanodira yakaoma musanganiswa kongiri pasi pemakomba enheyo akazadzwa nemvura. Iyi nzira ndeyechokwadi isina hanya, ichikonzera hurombo hwekongiri, kuderera kwekubatana, kunyanya kana hwaro hunoda yakakwirira kongiri mamaki. Chiyero chesimende hachifanirwe kunyudzwa mumvura, kusanganisa kana kuzvimba, saka yeuchidza vashandi vako kudonhedza mvura yese mugomba rekutanga, wozodira kongiri yakasanganiswa nemvura mugomba.

4. Standard mbiru kongiri kudira muitiro 

4.1 Kudurura nzira

Isa kongiri mukati mekudururira bhuroka kuburikidza nekudira chiteshi kuburikidza nekudira chute. 2m ndiyo yakanyanya kudonha kureba kwekongiri.

Standard mbiru kongiri kudira muitiro
Standard mbiru kongiri kudira muitiro

Huya nerokwe mukati kuti ribatanidze iro rakamira, shandisa spatula kuti ribatanidze. Kudzika kwakadzika kwega kwega kwekongiri kana rammed kunobva pa30-50cm, ye20-40s. Compaction maererano nemirairo kuitira kuti irege kukanganisa kusimbiswa.

4.2 Mamwe manotsi pakudira

The column's feature inhengo yakatwasuka, iine basa rekudzvanya kubatsira kuendesa simba kune column foundation. Column kuvakwa panguva yakanyatsokodzera ndeye apo kongiri nheyo mbiru yakaoma. 

Asati aita kudira kongiri yakasimbiswa, zvakakosha kuchenesa konkrete pakati pekusimbisa uye kuporesa nemvura zvakakwana. Zvadaro, dururira simende yakasanganiswa nemvura kubatsira zvikamu zviviri zvekongiri itsva neyekare kuti zvinyatsobatana.

Iyo column iri padyo nemadziro eimba iri padyo nemusuwo, kana iwe ukaisa pepa reformwork pakati pe column slot uye madziro emadziro, zvichave zvakaoma kubvisa gare gare. Iyo nzira yekugadzirisa ndeye kushandisa furo pachinzvimbo cheformwork yakaiswa munzvimbo iyoyo. Paunenge wapedza kudira kongiri mbiru, unogona kuisiya pasina kuibvisa zvakare.

Nechigadziro chegonhi, ichafanira kudururwa kusvikira masuo ekuvhara uye iwe unoramba uchidurura pamusoro.

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4.3 Kukunda stratification kana uchidira kongiri

Stratification chinhu chinowanzoitika pakudira kongiri, kunyanya kongiri.

Muchokwadi, panguva yekuvaka, vanhu vanowanzogadzira mbiru mabhokisi pasina kuvhurika pamuviri, kongiri dhaka inodurura kubva kumusoro kwembiru, ichidonha zvakasununguka pasi zvichikonzera stratification. Zvishandiso zvakaita sematombo nematombo kunyura, zvichiita kuti tsoka yembiru izere nematombo, asi ishoma simende dhaka. 

Unogona kukunda chiitiko ichi ne pairing mbiru bhokisi, kudira simende-jecha dhaka kutanga (maererano mureza simende-jecha reshiyo iri kana , the layer rinenge 20 - 30cm gobvu), wozodira dhaka rekongiri. 

5. Standard uriri danda kongiri kudira muitiro 

5.1 Kudurura nzira

Pamapurojekiti edzimba dzevagari, kureba kwematanda hakupfuuri 50cm, saka vashandi vekuvaka vanowanzodira matanda ekongiri pamwe chete nepasi slabs.

Standard kongiri kudira muitiro uriri matanda
Standard kongiri kudira muitiro uriri matanda 

Kana urefu hwedanda hunopfuura 80cm, danda rinofanira kuiswa kongiri zvakaparadzana nepasi slab. Panguva iyoyo, kongiri haizodirwa muzvidimbu zvinoenderana nehurefu hwedanda. Izvo zvinodurura manera maitiro angangoita 1m panguva, kusvika kureba kwedanda kwasvikwa, wozodira zvakare.

Rini mirwi yekongiri yakatsikirirwa Ese matanda uye pasi slabs akabatanidzwa nembiru, achidururira mbiru 3-5cm kubva pasi pematanda, zvakakosha kumira kushanda kwemaawa anenge 1-2 kuitira kuti kongiri ive nenguva yekudonha isati yaenderera mberi nekudurura matanda uye pasi slabs. . Vavaki vashoma vanoita izvi nemaoko, uye basa richakamurwa kuita 2 nhanho: kudira makoramu> kujoinha danda formwork, pasi slabs.

6. Standard pasi kongiri kudira muitiro 

6.1 Kudurura nzira

Pasi rinowanzoita 8-10cm kureba, pasi rakakamurwa kuita mitsetse, tambo imwe neimwe ine 1-2m yakafara yekudira kongiri. Kana wapedza kudurura 1 strip, enderera mberi nekudira mutsara unotevera. Pakupedzisira, ichidururira kusvika 1m kubva kubhanhire guru, girder huru ichadururwa.

Standard kongiri kudira muitiro
Standard kongiri kudira muitiro

Concrete matanda akadururirwa kumusoro formwork 5-10cm acharamba kudira kongiri uriri. Kushanda kwese kwekugadzirisa, kukwesha, nekupukuta kunofanirwa kuitwa nekukasira, zvichiteedzera maitiro ekukungurutsa nzvimbo yega yega yakadirwa kwemaminitsi gumi nemashanu.

6.2 Mamwe manotsi pakudira

Floor ine chimiro chakafanana nekombuta, asi ine yakafara muchinjikwa-chikamu uye diki ukobvu, saka hapana chikonzero chekushandisa furemu uye bhandi rekusimbisa.

Kudurura kongiri pasi haina mitemo yakasimba pakupisa kupisa, kudzivirira mvura. Zvisinei, nzira yekugadzirisa inofanirawo kuteverwa kudzivirira kongiri kubva pakuputika. Inoda kudzora yakakwirira kana ichidira bubble kongiri uswa hydraulic kongiri nemageji kudzivirira kutambisa kongiri. Usabvumira mvura kuti irambe yakamira pamigumo miviri, pamwe chete nejira rekudzidza uye pakona yefomu.

6.3 Concrete pasi pepamusoro zviyero

  • Ita shuwa kuti pasi pave nekutakura zvakanaka, yakaoma zvakakwana, uye haina kutonhora kana kunyorova kusvika pakubata.
  • Iro pasi rakati sandara, harina kukombama kana kusatarisika
  • Iyo pasi inovimbisa kutsvedzerera uye porosity kugadzira yakanaka adhesion uye frictional floor surface.
  • Pasi pane denga rekongiri risina mvura.

6.4 Miyero yekuiswa kwekongiri slabs nenzira yekutakura

Iyo yakadirwa kongiri block inoda kuve panzvimbo yakaderera pane nzvimbo yeinouya kongiri yekutakura mota. Kureva kuti, kongiri inotakura mugwagwa wakakwirira pane chivako chimiro.

Mutemo mukuru ndewekudira pasi kongiri munzira yekudzokera kumashure kuti iite jira, kudzivirira stratification (kubva kunzvimbo iri kure nenzvimbo yekugamuchira zvakanyanya uye zvishoma nezvishoma uchidzokera kunzvimbo yepedyo).

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