Miyero yekuvimbisa kuchengetedzwa kwekuvaka kwenheyo dzisina kudzika

Kana iyo yakadzika hwaro ndiyo mhando yenheyo yemapurojekiti akakwira akadai semafurati kana nzvimbo dzekutengesa. Saka nheyo isina kudzika chii? Ndeapi maitiro avanoshandiswa? Dzidza nezverudzi urwu rwenheyo uye zviyero zvakamiswa kuti ive nechokwadi chekuchengetedza isina kudzika nheyo yekuvaka. 

Chii chinonzi nheyo isina kudzika? 

Kusiyana nenheyo dzakadzika, nheyo dzisina kudzika dzinoshandiswa kumapurojekiti maduku ane mitoro yakaderera. Semuenzaniso, level 4 dzimba, dzimba kubva pa1 kusvika pa5 pasi, .... Aya mabasa anofanira kuvakwa paivhu rakanaka, kana kuti kana pavhu rakapfava, nheyo yacho inofanira kubatwa mukuwirirana nemipimo yokuvaka nheyo paivhu rakapfava.

Mukuita, nheyo dzisina kudzika dzinovakwa pamusoro pekucherwa pasina uyezve kudzosera kumashure. Kudzika kwekuvigwa kwehwaro kunosvika ⅔m mune dzakawanda zviitiko, iyi nhamba inogona kusvika 5m. Shallow nheyo inogona kushandiswa mukuvaka pedyo neimba foundation mumaguta nekuda kwekuita kwayo kuri nyore, kwehupfumi uye kwakachengeteka Chimiro chenheyo kuvaka.

Yakadzika nheyo yakashandiswa mumapurojekiti madiki

Chimiro chekuisa dhizaini isina kudzika nheyo

Kuisa nheyo dzisina kudzika, vanhu vakavakirwa pazvinhu zvakawanda zvinosanganisira: mutoro, kuoma uye kugadzira. 

Kubva pane isina kudzika nheyo mutoro

Kuremerwa kwenheyo ndiko kugona kutakura mitoro kubva kune zvakawanda zvinokanganisa kubva muchimiro. Zvinoenderana nekuremerwa uye kukanganisa kuverenga, nheyo dzisina kudzika dzakakamurwa muzvikamu zvinotevera: 

  • Foundation loading right centre 
  • Eccentric mutoro wakatakura hwaro 
  • Nheyo dzezvivakwa zvirefu senge shongwe dzemvura, chimneys, nezvimwe.
  • Nheyo dzinowanzo takura masimba makuru akachinjika senge madziro ekuchengetedza, madhamu, nezvimwe.
  • Nheyo yacho inonyanya kuiswa kune yakatwasuka mitoro, uye nguva yacho idiki

Kubva panheyo isina kudzika kuoma

Mapoka enheyo akapatsanurwa zvichienderana nekuoma kweiyo nheyo, kusanganisira: 

  • Mhedziso yakaoma zvachose imhando yenheyo ine kuomarara kwakanyanya (inoonekwa seisina magumo), yakaderera deformation (inoonekwa sepedyo ne zero). Mhando dzenheyo muboka iri dzinosanganisira nheyo yezvidhina, nheyo yematombo, nheyo yekrete. 
  • Nheyo yakapfava ndiyo nheyo ine nhanho yekuchinja yakafanana neyepasi (kureva deformation yakakura, simba rekukotama rakakwirira). Mhando yenheyo muboka iri yakasimbiswa kongiri hwaro nereshiyo yakareba/pfupi yerutivi inopfuura kasere. 
  • Finite yakaoma hwaro inosimbiswa kongiri hwaro nepfupi divi reshiyo uye refu/pfupi divi reshiyo isingasviki kasere.
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Zvinoenderana nekuti inogadzirwa sei

Kubva pane nzira yekugadzira, hwaro hwakakamurwa kuita hwaro hwese block uye hwaro hwakaungana. 

  • Yakazara block nheyo imhando yenheyo inogadzirwa panzvimbo yekuvaka, kana nemamwe mazwi, yakadururwa-mu-nzvimbo hwaro.
  • Prefabricated fandesheni ihwaro hwakagara hwagadzirwa hunozotakurwa kunoungana panzvimbo yekuvaka. 

Inowanzo shandiswa shallow foundation designs

Aya magadzirirwo ezvipikiri anorongedzerwa zvichienderana nemaitiro ekushanda emhando yega yega nheyo. Nekuti zvinokwanisika kuongorora yakadzama dhizaini yerudzi rwega rwenheyo, aya magadzirirwo ezvipikiri ane mukurumbira. 

Chipikiri chimwe

Chipikiri chimwe idzo nheyo muchimiro chembiru kana slabs, inowanzoshandiswa pasi pembiru kana madziro pamwe chete nenheyo matanda. Dzinowanzo shandiswa kune zvivakwa zvine mitoro yepakati - isina simba, kazhinji dzimba kubva pa1 kusvika ku3 pasi. 

Kuenzaniswa nemamwe marudzi enheyo, kuvakwa kwenheyo imwe chete kuri nyore uye mutengo hauna kunyanya kukwira.  

Mifananidzo yetafura imwe yembambo yekucheka

Ice Claw

Ice hwaro pasi pekoromo ndiyo mhando yenheyo inofanirwa kukanganiswa kubva pamutsara wekoramu. Ice Claw pasi pemadziro ndiko kuwedzera kune pasi pemadziro ekutakura mutoro uye rusvingo rusina kutakura. 

Saizi 1 kureba kwerudzi urwu rwembambo kunowanzo kureba kupfuura humwe hurefu, asi muchinjiko-chikamu chimiro hachichinji pamwe nekureba kwembambo. 

Kana makoramu akagoverwa mumativi maviri, flat-padhuze ichashandiswa kukanganisa kugoverwa kwesimba. 

Ice nheyo inoshandiswa mumamiriro ezvinhu ekuti nheyo iri pasi pemutoro unorema, pasi haina kunyanya kuipa uye nheyo inofanira kunge iri pasi pembiru. Zvichienderana nepurojekiti imwe neimwe uye pasi iyo mushandi wekuvaka anosarudza kushandisa 1 nzira ice chipikiri kana nzira mbiri dzekukodzera uye kuona kuchengeteka.

Mukuvaka dzimba dzehurumende, rudzi urwu rwenheyo runonyanya kushandiswa. Zvivakwa zvinodarika 3 floors zvinonyanya kushandisa rudzi urwu rwenheyo. Nekuti deformation yakagovaniswa zvakaenzana uye iri nyore kuvaka pane imwe nheyo. Mutengo wacho uri pakati nepakati, asi mainjiniya anokukurudzira kuti ushandise mukati mehuwandu hwevhu rehupamhi hwepasi pasi pe1,5m kuchengetedza mutengo. Kana iri hombe kupfuura 1,5m, iyo raft hwaro inogona kunge iri sarudzo yakakodzera. 

Kurambidza hwaro, raft hwaro 

Kurambidza uye raft nheyo dzakasimbiswa kongiri slab nheyo dziri pasi pechikamu kana chivakwa chose

Chimiro chezvipikiri izvi ndechokuti zvose zvakakura zvikuru. Inowanzo shandiswa kumapurojekiti ane mitoro yakakura kwazvo senge culverts, pombi zviteshi, shongwe dzemvura kana hydroelectric magetsi emagetsi, nezvimwe.

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Muchokwadi, mabasa ekuvaka pavhu rakapfava achasarudza rudzi urwu rwenheyo. Mune mamwe mazwi, iyi ndiyo mhinduro yakachengeteka yemabasa ekuvaka pavhu rakapfava. Nokuti panguva yekuvaka, uremu hwenheyo huchagoverwa zvakaenzana, zvichiita kuti mutoro webasa ugoverwe zvakaenzana pamusoro pepamusoro, zvichideredza mukana wekuderera kwevhu. 

Kudhirowa kwekucheka kwematanda

Mipimo yekuchengeteka yenheyo dzisina kudzika?

Kufanana nenheyo ipi neipi, nheyo dzisina kudzika dzine makodhi ekuvaka. Kuchengeta chivako chakasimba uye chakasimba. 

Geological mamiriro ekushandiswa

Sezvaunoziva, geological mamiriro enzvimbo haana kufanana. Saka, ndeapi mamiriro e geological kuti akwanise kuisa nheyo isina kudzika? 

Vasati vaenderera mberi nekuvaka faundesheni isina kudzika, vashandi vanofanirwa kuitisa chera nheyo pakadzika kwakakodzera purojekiti. Inotevera ndiyo nzira imba nheyo kuve nechokwadi chekuti makona akaiswa munzvimbo yakakodzera yekubatsira imba kiredhi uye kuve nechokwadi chekuremerwa kukuru muhupenyu hwese hwekushandisa.

Kana tichiita hwaro husina kudzika, tinofanirwa kutarisisa kune maitiro e: dhizaini gobvu, kudzika kwemvura yepasi pevhu uye kugoverwa kwevhu rakapfava. Semuenzaniso, iyo yakadzika nheyo yakavigwa, iyo yakakura mutoro wekutakura. Kana kuti zvidimbu zvevhu zvakapfava zvinokanganisa sei kuvaka uye kuisa nheyo. 

Kazhinji, ivhu (ivhu rakasanganiswa) nheyo kubva kupurasitiki yakaoma kusvika kune yakaoma nehupamhi hwakakwana (5 - 7m) pamusoro penheyo inokodzera nheyo isina kudzika. 

Muchiitiko chevhu rakapfava revhu rinowanikwa zvakananga pazasi pevhu rakanaka, rinokanganisa kushushikana kwekugadzirisa (5 - 10m pazasi penheyo pasi). Panguva ino, zvinodikanwa kuverenga uye kudzikamisa kudzika kwenheyo kuitira kuti usawedzera mukana wekukanganisa kunokonzera kuputika uye kuparara kwechivako chose. Panguva imwecheteyo tora mukana wevhu rakanaka pamusoro. Nekudaro, kana paine simba majeure, zvinodikanwa kutora matanho anoenderana nenguva sekutsiva nematanda emushenjere, matanda emelaleuca kana kudzvanya mirwi. 

Matanho ekutsiva bamboo neMelaleuca matanda

Mukuongorora mamiriro e geological, mainjiniya ekuvaka anofanirwa kutarisisa kune matambudziko anosanganisira: 

Saizi yenheyo: saizi yembambo yakajairwa yakaisirwa nheyo isina kudzika inobva ku0.8 - 1.4m. Vanhu vazhinji vanofunga kuti kuvaka hwaro hombe kuti uwedzere huwandu hwemutoro asi iyi imhinduro isingaite nekuti kuverenga kona yekuvhura kunowedzera kunetsa. 

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Iyo deformation kugona kwembambo inowanzosvika painogumira muhuwandu hweSgh ≤ 8 cm. 

Mamiriro ekusarudza kudzika kwenheyo

Geological uye hydrological mamiriro

Kudzika kwekuvigwa kwenheyo zvakare kunoenderana nezvakawanda pane geological uye hydrological factor. Mune iyo, nzvimbo yekutakura ivhu yevhu ndiyo chinhu chinokosha. Saka panguva yeongororo chaiyo, vanhu vachaverenga hudzamu hwekuvigwa kwehwaro hwakakodzera mhando yega yega yevhu. 

Mune geological uye hydrological factor, vanhu vanozofunga nezve amplitudes ekuchinja kwemazinga emvura yepasi, kuyerera kwepasi pevhu - chikonzero chekuyerera kwejecha chiitiko. Nekuda kwehwaro uhu, vanhu vanogona kusarudza yakanakisa nheyo yekuvaka nzira uye kuronga. Nenzira dzakawanda dzekuvaka, vanhu vanoedza kuisa hwaro hwaro pamusoro pemvura yepasi. Nekuti kana hwaro huri pazasi pemvura yepasi, nekuda kwekuita kwehuoyancy yemvura, inoderedza kushushikana kunobata panheyo, iyo inoderedza kutsvedza kupikisa kana ichiiswa pasi pemasimba akatwasuka, inowedzera kugona kudurura uye kudonha kwechivako. . 

Kugona kutumira mutoro webasa 

Zvinoenderana nezviyero zvekuvaka mutoro wekutakura, hwaro hunoda kuiswa zvakadzika zvakakwana. Yekutanga ndeyekudzikisa nzvimbo yehwaro hwaro, kuderedza kugadzika uye deformation yevhu, kunyanya pasi rakapfava. Chechipiri, kumabasa ari pasi pemasimba makuru akachinjika, kusarudza kudzika kwenheyo chaiyo kunoderedza mukana wekutsvedza nekupidigura. 

Zvinodiwa zvekushandisa chirongwa

Mhando yemabasa ari padyo zvakare chinhu chekuwedzera kudzika kwenheyo senge tunnel, pombi dzemvura, .... Semuenzaniso, kana chivako chiri pedyo nemugero, pasi penheyo inofanira kuiswa zvishoma 40cm yakadzika kupfuura yepasi uye pamusoro penheyo yenheyo inofanira kuiswa pasi pevhu repasi. 

Matanho ekuvaka nheyo

Nzira dzekuvaka nheyo uye kudzika kwenheyo dzine hukama hwepedyo. Kana hwaro hudzamu huchiverengwa nehungwaru, zvinokwanisika kupfupisa nguva yekuvaka kwenheyo uye nzira yekushandisa matanho ekuvaka haitore simba rakawanda. 

Panguva yekuvaka, zvinokwanisika kupa mazano akawanda ekuvaka pamwe nekudzika kwakakodzera kwenheyo. Kubva ipapo, unogona kusarudza kudzika pamwe neiyo yakanyanya kunaka nzira yekuzviita. 

Mhedziso

Nokudaro, kunyange zvazvo mhando dzenheyo dzakakamurwa zvakajeka, sarudzo yemhando yenheyo mukuvaka ichiri kufanira kufungwa nezvayo. Izvo zvakafanana zvinoenda kune zvipikiri zvisina kudzika, chinyorwa chiri pamusoro chingori ruzivo rwekutanga kuti iwe unzwisise zviri nani iyo isina kudzika nheyo boka. Kana ikashandiswa mukuita, vagadziri vanozoshanduka pakusarudza nheyo pamwe chete nemhinduro dzinoshanda dzekuchengetedza nguva, mari uye kushanda nesimba. 

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