Mitemo yefaundesheni yeimba pavhu rakapfava

Kune zvakawanda zvivakwa zvakavakwa pavhu rakapfava semadziva, madziva, nzizi, nezvimwe, izvo zvinokwenenzverwa. Izvi zvinoonekwa sevhu rakapfava rinotungamira kune zvakawanda zvakakomba mhedzisiro mukugadzira uye kuvaka kwemabasa. Saka kugadzira uye kugadzira hwaro pavhu risina simba saka kunaka ikoko inyaya inoda kutariswa nevanhu vazhinji. Vanhu vanoisa yavo mipimo yezvipikiri kune aya emazuva ese mabasa. Inobatsira kuchengetedza nheyo yeimba nguva dzose yakasimba, kwete kuputsika kana kuputika.

Kukosha kwenheyo kune chimiro chechivako?

Nheyo isanganiswa yezvivakwa pakati simbi yembambo dzembambo, kongiri uye ndiyo inonyanya kukosha yechivako. Mhedzisiro yavo ndeyekufambisa mutoro weimba yese pasi. Imba yakasimba imba ine nheyo yakanaka, yakasimba. Nokudaro, panguva yekugadzira uye kuvaka, zvakakosha kubata nheyo yeimba pavhu rakapfava zvakanyatsonaka uye zvakakwana.

Nheyo dzeimba pavhu rakapfava dzinoda kuenderana nemaitiro mashoma ekurapwa isati yavakwa

Maitiro ekuona pasi rakapfava

Nzira yekuziva sei pasi rakapfava

Kukwanisa kuvaka pasi rakapfava uye kupedzisa hwaro hwemazuva ese. Tinofanira kuziva nzvimbo isina kusimba. Kubva ipapo, zvinokwanisika kupa mazano ekugadzira nheyo yeimba maererano. Kuziva pasi rakapfava, vanhu vakavakirwa pamaonero maviri: emhando uye yehuwandu maonero. 

  • Qualitative maonero

Saizvozvo, iyo yemhando yekuona ndeyekuti ivhu rakapfava imhando yevhu iyo pachayo haigone kumira mitoro inofambiswa nechimiro. Zvisinei, nezvakataurwa, zvakaoma kutaura kuti pasi harina kusimba here kana kuti kwete. Nekuti hapana data rinotsigira uye hapana hwaro hwesainzi

  • Quantitative maonero

Iyi ndiyo pfungwa yekuona uchishandisa mafomula kuratidza kuti ivhu rinogona kumira mutoro wechivakwa here kana kuti kwete. Maonero aya anogamuchirwawo nenyika uye ane hwaro hwesainzi. Mune maonero aya, mafomula akavakwa zvichibva pamaitiro maviri emuviri uye emuchina. 

Zvinoenderana nemaitiro emuviri, vakaratidza kuti ivhu harina kusimba kana richigutsa mamiriro acho:

  • Density : gW<= 1,7 T/m3.
  • Chisina chinhu : e >=1.
  • Humidity: W > = 40%.
  • Saturation : G >= 0,8.
  • Kana iri yemakanika maitiro, iyo yakapfava ivhu ndeiyi: 
  • Mutoro wemutoro mudiki ndewe: R = (0,5 - 1) kG/cm2
  • Iyo deformation modulus ndeye: E0<= 50 kG/cm2.
  • Compression coefficient is: a > = 0,01 cm2/kG
  • Engle yekukwesha kwemukati ndeye: fi <= 100
  • Simba rekubatana (kwevhu rakabatana) nderokuti: c <= 0,1 kG/cm2.
Xem thm  Nzira yekusiyanisa zvipikiri zvechando uye raft misumari

Mhando dzakajairika dzevhu risina simba

Muchokwadi, pakugadzira dice gomba, mainjiniya nevashandi vanogona kuona zviri nyore mune zvakajairika kuti ivhu rakapfava. Kuburikidza nemhando yevhu panzvimbo yekuvaka, iyo inoongorora pasi kuburikidza nekucherechedza. 

  • Ivhu risina simba: Ivhu rakakora kana ivhu riri mumvura-yakazara mamiriro uye simba rawo rakaderera.
  • Ivhu rejecha risina simba:  Ivhu rejecha rinoratidzirwa nechimiro chisina kugadzikana, chinosanganisira jecha rakanaka. Dzinogona kucheneswa uye kuumbwa kuitira kuti kana dzakaremerwa, dzinosangana nekuyerera kwejecha. 
  • Madhaka: Slurry ine hunyoro hunodarika goho uye ine hombe void ratio (e>1). Mukuwedzera, kusimba kwedhaka kuduku zvikuru, saka kuita kuvaka pavhu rine matope, zvakakosha kubata pasi. 
  • Peat uye peat ivhu: Ivhu rerudzi urwu nderwekutanga, rinoumbwa nekuda kwekuora kwezvirimwa nemhuka (zvikuru zvinomera). Component wallets ine misanganiswa yakawanda yejecha nevhu, saka ivo vane zvinhu zvakafanana. 
  • Basalt ivhu: Hunhu hweivhu iri hukuru hweporosity, yakaoma density uye yakakwirira mvura permeability. Saka zviri nyore kudonha. 
  • Kuzadza ivhu: Ivhu remhando iyi rinogadzirwa nemaitiro evanhu. Hunhu hwe embankment ndeye discontinuous kugovera uye heterogeneous kuumbwa.
Kuziva mamwe marudzi epasi asina kusimba kunovimbisa chivako chakachengeteka chisina kudzika nheyo kana kunyange nheyo dzakadzika dzemapurojekiti makuru.

Mitemo yefaundesheni yeimba pavhu rakapfava

Kurapa ivhu rakapfava, kune nzira dzakawanda dzekuwedzera kusimba kwenheyo. Heano maitiro mashanu anonyanya kushandiswa. 

Maitiro ekushandura kudzika kwenheyo

Ichi chiyero chakaratidzwa kuti chiwedzere kusimba kwenheyo sezvinotevera: Kupinda kwakadzika kwenheyo kunotungamirira kukuwedzera kwekuremerwa kwekutakura kwenheyo, uye kuderera kwekunetseka kunokonzera kugadziriswa kwenheyo. Mukuwedzera, kuwedzera kudzika kwenheyo kunobatsira kuisa nheyo muzvikamu zvevhu pasi, kuwedzera kugadzikana kwenheyo. 

Nekudaro, muganhu wechiyero ichi ndechekuti index yehupfumi uye yakadzika indekisi yenheyo inopindirana. Kudzika kwenheyo, kunowedzera kudhura. 

Nzira yekushandura kudzika kwenheyo

Standard mukuchinja chipikiri chimiro uye saizi

Iyo nzira yekushandura chimiro uye saizi yembambo ine mhedzisiro yekudzikamisa yakananga kudzvanywa pedyo neimba foundation. Nokudaro, zvinokwanisika kushandura chiyero chekutakura mutoro, kuderedza deformation kukwanisa kwenheyo. 

Zvichienderana ne geology yenzvimbo imwe neimwe yekuvaka, zvinokwanisika kusarudza rudzi rwakakodzera rwemurwi (murwi nheyo, tepi nheyo, nheyo imwe chete, ...). Nekuti nzvimbo yepasi penheyo inowedzera, kudzvanywa kuri pahwaro hwepasi uye kugadzirisa kwechivako kunoderera. Ziva kuti izvi hazvishande kune geology uko kuderera kwepasi kunowedzera nekudzika. 

Xem thm  Chimiro uye zviyero zvehwanda hwenheyo

Mitemo pakuchinja rudzi rwembambo uye kuoma kwembambo

Sezvakataurwa pamusoro apa nzira, hwaro mhando uye hwaro kuoma hazvizove zvakafanana pasi pezvakasiyana geological mamiriro. 

Tora muenzaniso wemhando yechando nheyo inoshandiswa munyaya yevhu risina simba. Kana iyo deformation ichiri yakakura, zvinokwanisika kuwedzera kuoma kwenheyo kuwedzera simba rekutakura kwenheyo. 

Misumari inogona kugoverwa mumapoka akawanda. Naizvozvo, zvinodikanwa kuti uongorore geological mamiriro asati avakwa kuti asarudze mhando yenheyo yakakodzera pasi. Mumabasa ekuvaka, mhando dzembambo inonyanya kushandiswa ndeye chipikiri chimwe chete, ice misumari nenheyo dzemarata pavhu rakapfava.

Mukuwedzera kune kuoma, isu tinobvumirwawo kuwedzera hupamhi hwenheyo, kuwedzera kubereka kusimba kwekusimbisa, kuwedzera simba rekugadzirisa, kuronga mamwe mbabvu dzekusimbisa, nezvimwewo kusimbisa nheyo yeimba pakuvaka pavhu rakapfava. 

Nekudaro, shanduko iyi inoda kubvumidzwa neinjiniya kuti ive nechokwadi chekuti haikanganisi chimiro chese chivakwa. 

Zviyero zvemirwi yeshenjere Mapango eMelaleuca pakugadzira hwaro pavhu rakapfava

Iyi ndiyo nzira yechinyakare. Kazhinji, nzira iyi inoshandiswa chete kumapurojekiti ane mitoro miduku. Kunyanya yakakodzera kune hwaro hwenhanho 4 dzimba pavhu rakapfava.

Kuburikidza nemaitiro chaiwo ekuvaka, kugadzira hwaro hwe1m2 yenzvimbo yeimba, 25 bamboo kana melaleuca mapango anodiwa nehurefu hwe3m - 6m. Iwo anowanikwa mukati memvura yepasi petafura, iyo inowedzera kushanda kwenheyo. Kana mamiriro epasi asina simba, chikamu chemuchinjikwa chenheyo chinogadzirwa kubva pamatanda emushenjere, matanda emelaleuca anofanira kunge ari maduku. 

Bamboo hwaro, murwi hwaro hunoda kuzadzisa zvinotevera zviyero: 

  • Mishenjere yekugadzira masiteki inofanira kunge yasakara seshenjere inopfuura makore maviri, yakatwasuka, nyoro, ine dhayamita diki ye2cm. Usave wakakombamira zvakanyanya kuti uve nechokwadi cheimwe muganhu
  • Kumucheto kwepamusoro kwedanda kunofanirwa kunge kuri 50mm kubva paziso rekutanga remushenjere, perpendicular kune axis yemurwi. Mugumo wepazasi wakavharwa, uye 200mm kubva paziso kugadzira muromo wemurwi. 
  • Kureba kwe bamboo ndeye 2-3m 

Pamusoro pezviyero zvezvinhu, panguva yekufambisa mirwi, mushandisi anofanirawo kucherechedza:

  • Munguva yese yekufambisa mirwi, zvakakosha kuchengetedza mirwi yakatwasuka, kwete kurerekera 
  • Rongedza pamusoro pemurwi nematiresi kudzivirira kubvaruka
  • Chengetedza danda 1 panguva imwe chete, usatyaire mirwi yakawanda panguva imwe chete kuti murwi urege kurereka.
  • Kana musoro wemurwi wakatyoka, zvinodikanwa kuti ucheke pamusoro pemurwi uyu kuderedza majuru panguva yekushandiswa.
  • Mirwi inonamirwa zvakaenzana panzvimbo yekuvaka nheyo.
  • Teerera nemaparamita patafura yekugadzira kuti uve nechokwadi chekuremerwa kwenheyo 
  • Dhonza murwi mune inotenderera kubva kunze kusvika mukati.
Zviyero zve bamboo uye melaleuca mapango enheyo

Chiyero chemurwi hwaro pavhu rakapfava

Ichi ndicho chiyero chinonyanya kufarirwa nekuda kwekuchengetedzwa kwayo. Pazasi pane matanho ekushandisa iyo pile nheyo sarudzo. Panhanho imwe neimwe, pane zvinodiwa zvekushandisa. 

Xem thm  Miyero yekuchera makomba enheyo uye nzira dzekuvaka

Danho 1: Gadzirira nzvimbo yekuvaka 

  • Nhambwe iri pakati penzvimbo yekuiswa murwi kunzvimbo yekutsikirira murwi inofanira kunge yakati sandara
  • Nzvimbo yekutakura mirwi inofanira kunge iri kunze kwenzvimbo yekongiri yekutsikirira
  • Izvo zvinodikanwa kudhirowa mutsara wepakati usati wagadzirisa uye kugadzira mirwi 
  • Gadzirira zvizere mishumo yehunyanzvi hwebasa rekuongorora geological
  • Positioning uye nheyo yeprojekti 

Danho 2: Kuvaka kutevedzana kweakasimbiswa kongiri mirwi 

  • Dzvanya murwi kutanga, uchiona verticality. Inoda kumira kuti igadziriswe nekukurumidza kana tilt ikaonekwa. 
  • Sunda mirwi kudzika kwekugadzira. Iyo axis yechikamu chemurwi kuti ubatanidzwe inofanirwa kuenderana negwara rekumanikidza, iyo yekubatanidza nzvimbo inofanirwa kuenderana. Iyo weld seam saizi inofanirawo kuve yakajairwa. 
  • Murwi wemanzwi pressure 
  • Hurefu hwemurwi hunofanirwa kudzvanywa mukati mevhu, pasi pehurefu hupfupi hwakatsanangurwa mutafura yekugadzira. 
  • Kana paine chinhu chekunze pakutyaira murwi, murwi unofanirwa kudhonzwa kumashure kana kudzvanywa zvakare maererano nekugadzirwa. 

Nhanho 3: Kugadzirisa kusimbiswa 

  • Rebar inofanira kutwasanudzwa uye kuita ngura
  • Cheka uye bend simbi maererano nekugadzira 
  • Batanidza kusimbiswa kana kureba kusina kukwana uye iva nechokwadi chokuti simbi yakarurama

Danho rechina: Isa iyo formwork

  • Iyo mirwi nheyo inofanirwa kusvika kune inodiwa ukobvu, kuve nechokwadi chekuchengetedza panguva yekushandiswa
  • Nzira yekudirwa nekugadzirisa kongiri haifaniri kurega mvura ichiyerera. Saka bhodhi rinofanira kugara rakavharwa.
  • Formwork inofanira kuva yehukuru hunodiwa uye chimiro
  • Kuwanda kwemiti kunofanirwa kunyatsoverengerwa kuve nechokwadi chemhando uye kutsanangurwa. Muti wetsigiro unofanirwa kugadziriswa uye kwete kutamiswa 
  • Mapuranga ehuni uye scaffolding panguva yekuvaka anofanirwa kuve nechokwadi kuti ane yakanaka kubereka kugona 
  • Kureba kunofanirwa kutsanangurwa pakati penheyo uye mutsipa wembiru

Danho rechishanu: Dururira kongiri nheyo 

  • Kudurura kongiri nheyo lining ane basa rokuchenesa pazasi nheyo kongiri, ichi hwaro kongiri inofanira kuva gobvu uye yakasimba, kutsungirira kukanganisa kubva yakapoteredza zvakatipoteredza. Ukobvu hwe liner kazhinji 10cm 
  • Kugadzira nheyo kunoda kudururwa kubva kure kusvika pedyo. Usati wadururira, zvinodikanwa kutarisa fomu, kusimbisa, uye pasi system kuti urege kugadzirisa kukanganisa nekuda kwezvinhu zvekunze. Inokurudzirwa kunwisa mapuranga, mafomu uye pasi kuti usapinda mvura yekrete. 
Nheyo yehwaro pavhu rakapfava

Mhedziso

Pamusoro pane zvinyorwa zvekubatikana paunenge uchiita kuvaka hwaro pavhu rakapfava uye matanho ekubata. Urwu ndirwo ruzivo rwekutanga kune vanoisa mari vari kuda kuvaka mabasa pavhu rakapfava. Batsira iwe kutarisa chirongwa zviri nani panguva yekuvaka. Kuunza chivakwa chakasimba uye chakasimba mupfungwa yechokwadi. 

Leave a Reply

Your kero e haangazozikamwi ichibudiswa. Raida minda anozivikanwa *