Kuvaka dhaka uye mwero tekinoroji zvinodiwa

Paunenge uchigadzira kuvaka, kupedzisa dzimba kana mabasa ekuvaka. Chimwe chezvinhu zvinoita basa rakakosha uye rinokosha pane izvozvo idhaka rekuvaka. 

Dzidza dhaka rekuvaka

Pfungwa

Chii chinonzi dhaka?
Dura rekuvaka rinogadzirwa kubva musanganiswa wejecha, simende, aggregates uye additives

Mortar ibwe rekugadzira zvinhu musanganiswa wejecha, mvura, simende, akaunganidzwa akakwana uye zvinowedzera. Zvese izvi zvikamu zvichasanganiswa mune imwe chiyero kuti ive nechokwadi chekunamatira kana uchivaka. Inoita basa rinokosha mumabasa epurojekiti yekuvaka. 

Dhaka riri mukuvaka rinoshandura maitiro ayo nekuda kwezvinowedzera: Kana ichangobva kukandwa, inogadzira musanganiswa unoshanduka unonzi musanganiswa wedhaka. Mushure mekushandura kuoma, zvidhinha zvinonamatira pamwe chete, zvichiita kuti chivako chive chakasimba. 

Doka rinoratidzwa nediki aggregate, pakuvaka uye kupurasita madziro, inofanirwa kutsvairwa kuita zvidimbu zvitete. Nzvimbo inosangana nemasoni, nzvimbo yakashongedzwa nemhepo yakakura zvikuru, saka mvura inorasika nyore nyore. Naizvozvo, pakukanya musanganiswa, huwandu hwemvura hunodiwa pakukanya dhaka hunenge hwakakura kudarika hwekongiri kuti dhaka risanyanya kuoma. Deredza kushanda kwezvinhu kana uchivaka. Mukuwedzera, nokuti hapana guru guru, simba rekutakura redhaka richave rakaderera pane rekongiri. Shandisa chiyero chakafanana uye shandisa imwechete yakanamatira. 

Classify

Kurongedza matope ekuvaka, inogona kuve yakavakirwa pane akawanda akasiyana maitiro. Nekudaro, mayuniti ekugadzira anowanzo akavakirwa pane zvinotevera zvakajairika zvinhu:

  • Kubva pane binder: pane dhaka resimende, dhaka repurasita, dhaka rakavhenganiswa, dhaka reraimu (Cement - ivhu, simende - lime).
  • Zvichienderana nehuremu hwevhoriyamu: inokamurwa kuita dhaka rinorema rine index ρv > 1500 kg/m3, dhaka rakareruka rine index ρv ≤1500 kg/m3.
  • Zvichienderana nekushandiswa: zvakakamurwa mumhando dzakadai sedhaka remasonry, dhaka rekunamira, dhaka rekushongedza, dhaka rekusvetwa, dhaka rekupurasita ...
Xem thm  Unoda here mvumo yekuvaka imba yenguva pfupi?

Ingredient

Kugadzira chivakwa chevhu musanganiswa, zvakakosha zvinhu zvinodiwa uye zvimwe zvinowedzera zvinowedzerwa zvichienderana nechinangwa chekuvaka. Kana iwe uchida kugadzira dhaka rekuvaka rakanaka, unofanirwa kuterera kune zvinotevera zvinongedzo:

Adhesives

kuvaka dhaka binder
Portland simende yekuvaka dhaka binder

Inorganic binder ndechimwe chezvinhu zvinodikanwa. Zvimwe zvinonamira zvinoshandiswa senge Portland simende, blast furnace slag granulated Portland simenti, yakasanganiswa Portland simende, pozzolanic Portland simende, air lime, gypsum ... Pakusarudza binder, zvakakosha kuve nechokwadi kuti unosangana nezvinotevera:

Kusarudza kushandisa binder kunofanirwa kuve nechokwadi chekuti dhaka rine simba uye kugadzikana mune yakajairwa mamiriro. Munzvimbo yakaoma, lime grade 4 inofanira kushandiswa.

Kuti ave nechokwadi chesimba pamwe chete ne ductility. Kana pasina zvakakosha zvinodiwa, zvinokurudzirwa kushandisa musanganiswa wegiredhi 10 - 75. Mumamiriro ezvinhu emvura inonaya, dhaka resimende regiredhi 100 - 150 rinofanira kushandiswa.

Mumhepo, lime yakasimba inoshandiswa nenzira yeimu yakanaka kana kuti quicklime. Paunenge uchishandisa lime, inofanirwa kupfuura nenhanho yapfuura yekusefa kunze kwegrit.

gypsum binder
Gypsum yaishandiswa kuwedzera kupenya uye kushongedza

Shandisa plaster kugadzira dhaka rekushongedza nekusimba kwepamusoro uye kutsetseka.

Aggregates

Jecha aggregate ndiyo skeleton inogona kutsigira dhaka panguva imwe chete, jecha rinobatsirawo dhaka kuramba shrinkage uye kuwedzera kugadzirwa kwedhaka. Paunenge uchishandisa aggregates, kutarisisa kunofanirwa kubhadharwa kune akati wandei nyaya:

kuvaka dhaka aggregates
Jecha aggregate chinhu chakakosha pakugadzira dhaka rekuvaka

Shandisa jecha rechisikigo kana jecha rekugadzira rakapwanyika kubva pamatombo akasimba kana matombo asina makomba. 

Kusimba kwedhaka kuchakanganiswa nemhando yejecha

Paunosarudza jecha redhaka, zvinodikanwa kuve nechokwadi chezvinodiwa zveiyo tafura inotevera:

Level maererano nedhaka giredhiAsingasviki 75Yakakura kupfuura kana kuenzana ne75
1.Moodn haisi pasi pe0.71.5
2. Mheni uye tsvina nenzira yemapunduNot availableNot available
3. Chikamu chinoyerera> 5mmNot availableNot available
4.Kurema kwehuwandu (kg/m3)Kwete pasi pe1150Kwete pasi pe1250
5.Zviri mumatope, huruva netsvina (%)Kwete kupfuura 10Kwete kupfuura 10
6. Sulfate, sulfite munyu wemukati wakaverengerwa SO3 nehuwandu %Kwete kupfuura 2Kwete kupfuura 1
7.Particle content <0.14 mm (%)Kwete kupfuura 35Kwete kupfuura 20

Additives

Paunenge uchigadzira dhaka unogona kushandisa admixtures senge kongiri. Kusanganisira inorganic additives senge: ivhu rinochinjika, jecha rakapwanyika, puzolan rock powder kuti iwedzere kushanda kwepurasitiki. Mukuwedzera, huwandu hwekuwedzera hunoshandiswa huchaedzwa nekuedza. 

Xem thm  Chii chinonzi density yekuvaka? Nzira yekuverenga sei kuwanda kwekuvakwa kwedzimba nemabasa

Mvura

Dura rekuvaka rinoda mvura yakachena kugadzira, harina girisi. Kana kuti huwandu hwezvinhu zvakasikwa zvinobvumirwa hazvifaniri kudarika 15 mg / l, pH inodiwa yakakura kudarika 4 uye inofanira kunge iri pasi pe12,5. 

Mukuwedzera, zvichienderana nekushandiswa kwedhaka, zvinyorwa zvezvimwe zvinosvibisa zvinoda kugutsa maererano neTCVN 4506: 1987.

Mitemo yekuvaka dhaka zvivakwa

Dura rekuvaka rinogadzirwa kubva kune akawanda akasiyana mazvikamu ekupurasita, kupfekedza, kutsvedzerera uye kupedzisa kwedzimba nekuvaka zvirongwa. Kana yakasanganiswa mudhaka rekuvaka, vanhu vanoiongorora zvichienderana ne5 inotevera zvivakwa:

Kuchengeta mvura

kuvaka dhaka zvivakwa
Doka rinofanira kuva nekuchengetedza mvura zvakanaka

Kuchengeta mvura ndiko kugona kwedhaka kubata mvura kubva pakusanganiswa kusvika yashandiswa. Doka rinosara kwenguva yakareba rinenge riine chiitiko chekuenzanisa, zvinongonzwisiswa kuti jecha richagadzikwa pasi. Uye chikamu chepamusoro chichava mvura inosvibisa kunaka kwedhaka. Pasina chokwadi mukuvaka, kugadzira dhaka kungave kwakaoma kupurasita, kwete kunamatira kumadziro.

Zvinhu zvakadai semhando, zvinhu, dhaka rinoshandiswa uye nzira yekusanganisa. Vanozokanganisa simba rekubata mvura yedhaka. Fungidzira dhaka resimende rinochengeta mvura zvishoma kudarika tri-mix mortar uye lime mortar. Dema jecha dhaka richabata mvura zviri nani pane yero jecha dhaka… Panguva yekushandiswa kwedhaka, zvakakosha kuterera kune epurasitiki uye kufanana. 

Flexibility (fluidity)

kuvaka dhaka zvivakwa
Tenderedza dhaka neimwe plastiki

Plasticity inozivikanwawo sekuti fluidity. Inomiririra kuoma, kushanduka uye pastiness yedhaka. Iyo plasticity ichaenderana neiyo ingredient kuumbwa, kusanganisa ratio uye kusanganisa nguva. 

Plasticity ndechimwe chezvinhu zvinokanganisa zvakanyanya kugadzirwa uye kunaka kwevanopura. 

Adhesion

kuvaka dhaka zvivakwa
Paunenge uchivaka uye kupedza dhaka, kunamatira kwakasimba nguva dzose kunodiwa

Ichi ndicho chirevo chinoratidza kushamwaridzana kwepedyo kwezvidhinha, plasters, tiles, screeds, etc. Nekanamatira kuvaka dhaka, inoderedza kunaka kwechigadzirwa pamwe nekuwedzera nguva yekuvaka.

Kunamatira kuchakanganiswa nemhando uye uwandu hwebhainda muhuturu hwekuumbwa. Kuti dhaka rive nekunamatira kwakanaka, pazvinenge zvakakodzera kuyera nemazvo zvinhu zvese zvinoenderana nezviyero. Kunze kwezvo, kuti uwedzere kunamatira mukuvaka, kunyanya mumasonry, plastering, cladding, uye kutsvedzerera, zvinodiwa kuchenesa nzvimbo ichavakwa. 

Simba

Kana dhaka raoma, rinova nekukwanisa kubereka kwakanaka nezvinokonzeresa zvakasimba. Kutakura uku kunopimwa nesimba nezvikamu zve daN/cm2 kana kN/cm2. Imba yega yega, chivakwa chefurati, villa, pagoda, nezvimwe zvinoda kuve nekubereka kwakasiyana. Naizvozvo, zvichienderana nemhando yeprojekiti, zvinodikanwa kusarudza mhando yedhaka yakakodzera ine kutakura kwakakodzera.

Xem thm  Chii chinonzi munda webindu? Sei iyo villa ichifanira kuva nenzvimbo yebindu?

Kuchinja-chinja

kuvaka dhaka zvivakwa
Dura rekuvaka rinoita chibvumirano kana kuwedzera nekuda kwekupisa

Scalability chiitiko chekuoma kana kunyorova. Kuoma uye kuoma kwedhaka kunonzwisiswa se shrinkage. Doka rine shrinkage yakakura, saka pachava nezvimwe zviitiko zvinozoitika pakutsvedzerera, kupurasita ... kuputika, kuzvimba, uye kusvuura nzvimbo dzekushongedza, kuderedza kunaka kwebasa. Naizvozvo, kana uchigadzira mayunitsi, zvinodikanwa kurega dhaka richidzikira zvishoma nezvishoma kudzivirira kupera kamwe kamwe. Mukuwedzera, inofanira kuonekwa kuti grout yakanyorova inotungamirira kuwedzera kwehuwandu. Zvisinei, munyaya iyi kuwedzera hakukanganisi zvakanyanya. 

Zviyero, zvinodiwa zvehunyanzvi zvekuvaka dhaka

Chikamu chekushandisa

Uyu ndiwo chiyero chinoshanda uchishandisa inorganic binder grout. Inoshandiswa pakuvaka nekupedzisa mabasa ekuvaka. Iyi chiyero haizoshandiswe kune mamwe marudzi edhaka ane akakosha zvivakwa: acid-resistant dhaka, anti-radiation dhaka, simende-polymer dhaka, dhaka risinga shrink...

Zvinhu zvinodiwa padhaka

Shandisa simenti inosangana nezviyero zvinotevera: TCVN 6260: 1997, TCVN 2682: 1999, TCVN 6067: 1995, TCVN 5691: 2000, TCVN 4033: 1995.

mwero zvinhu zvinodiwa
Zvigadzirwa zvedhaka zvekuvaka zvinoda kuzadzisa zviyero

Kana calcium lime yakashandiswa, hutano hunoenderana huchavimbiswa neTCVN 2231: 1989. Cherechedza kuti lime puree inofanira kuva nehuwandu hwehuwandu hunopfuura 1400 kg / m3. Inofanirwa kunyatsoongororwa kubvisa grit kuburikidza nesefa yedhayamita 2,5 mm. Kana yakashandiswa ne hydrate seti, sieve kuburikidza ne2,5 mm.

Ivhu rinodiwa rinofanira kunge riri ivhu rakakora rine jecha riri pasi pe5% nekuwanda. Zvichienderana nezvinodiwa zvekushandisa, unogona kusanganisa mineral nemakemikari additives kuti uvandudze zvinhu zvedhaka.

Mvura yakachena yakasanganiswa nedhaka ine mhando maererano neTCVN 4506: 1987.

Jecha rehutano rinofanira kuenderana neTCVN 1770: 1986. Sand modulus duku se 0,7 inogona kushandiswa kugadzira dhaka negiredhi isingasviki M7,5. 

Technical zvinodiwa

Zviratidzo zvekuyera kunaka kwedhaka nyowani

Tafura 3.1: Maitiro emhando yedhaka nyowani

ZvinangwaMortar type
KuvakaComplete
roughSmooth
Saizi yeaggregates Max (Dmax), kwete kupfuura52.51.25
Mobility mm
-Normal grout165 -
195
175 - 205175 - 205
-Dhizha rakareruka145 - 175155 - 185155 - 185
Fluidity kuchengetedza simba (%), kwete pasi pe
-Clay uye lime-isina grout656565
-Clay kana lime dhaka757575
Nguva kubva pakugadzika (maminitsi), kwete pasi pe150150150
Chlorine ion yemukati mudhaka (%), kwete kupfuura0.10.10.1

Yakaomeswa grout ine mamark in standard condition

Tafura 3.2: Mota giredhi uye kumanikidza simba pamakore makumi maviri nemasere masikati neusiku pasi pemamiriro akajairwa

Kuvaka dhaka chinhu chakakosha pakuita mabasa ekuvaka. Naizvozvo, tinovimba kuti zviri pamusoro zvichakubatsira iwe kugadzira dhaka rakakodzera reprojekiti yako. Kuunza chirongwa chemhando yepamusoro kudzimba dzese. 

Leave a Reply

Your kero e haangazozikamwi ichibudiswa. Raida minda anozivikanwa *