Kusvibiswa kwemvura uye zvinokanganisa hutano hwevanhu

Kusvibiswa kwemvura shanduko inowanzo anthropogenic inokanganisa kunaka kwemvura, inosvibisa uye inogona kuva nengozi kuvanhu, mhuka uye ecosystem muPasi rese. Iyi inyaya yakakomba kwazvo inotyisidzira nyika, ngatitsvagei matambudziko ane chekuita nawo Kusvibiswa kwezvakatipoteredza uye mhinduro yakakodzera.

Chii chinonzi kusvibiswa kwemvura? Chikonzero?

Kusvibiswa kwemvura
Kusvibiswa kwemvura idambudziko rinotyisa pasi rose

Chii chinonzi kusvibiswa kwemvura?

Mvura muzvisikwa iripo nenzira dzakasiyana-siyana: mvura yesuweji, mvura yemunzizi nemadziva, mvura yegungwa, mvura iri mumhute mumhepo... Zvinhu zvakakosha zvikuru zvinogadzirisa hupenyu hwevanhu. 70% yenzvimbo yePasi, chikamu chakakosha chezvipenyu zvese. 

Nhasi, nekukurumidza kwekukura kwevanhu, matsime emvura yakachena ari kuramba achishomeka uye njodzi yekusvibiswa iri kuwedzera. 

Nzvimbo yemvura inotariswa kuve yakasvibiswa kana:

  • Mumvura yekunwa uye mumvura yemumba ine zvinhu zvine chepfu zvakaita sezviya zviri mumishonga yezvipembenene, tsvina yemaindasitiri isina kucheneswa. 
  • Zvitubu zvemvura yepasi zvakasvibiswa, shanduko mukuumbwa uye kunaka nenzira yakaipa, uye kune zvinhu zvine chepfu mumvura zvinokanganisa zvakanyanya hupenyu hwevanhu, hutano uye zvipenyu. 
  • Pamusoro pemvura matsime akadai nzizi, hova, madziva, madziva, mvura yegungwa vane zvinoshamisa mavara (yellow, dema, dzvuku shava, ..), zvinoshamisa hwema (hove kunhuwa, kuora kwakasimba, stale hwema, .. ) uye akaonekwa scum, furo , zvipenyu zvakawanda zvaigara mumvura zvakafa.
  • Izvi zvinoshandura zvimiro zvinokonzeresa zvakaipa pane biochemical zviratidzo zvemvura. Izvi zvinoisawo mhuka dzemumvura panjodzi yekutsakatika. Pamwe chete neizvozvo, iyo ecology uye mamiriro ePasi achaonawo zvakaipa uye zvinorema zvinokanganisa. Vanhu kana vachishandisa chitubu chemvura ichi vanoisa hutano hwavo panjodzi uye kuwedzera njodzi yegomarara gare gare.

Chii chinokonzera kusvibiswa kwemvura?

kusvibiswa kwemvura
Kusvibiswa kwemvura nekuda kwezvikonzero zvinokonzeresa kubva kumasikirwo aamai

Kusvibiswa kwemvura kwechisikigo: nekuda kwemvura, kunyungudika kwechando, dutu remhepo, mafashamo, greenhouse effect kuisa mumvura marara ane tsvina, zvipenyu zvinokuvadza kusanganisira mitumbi yazvo. Mhando dzenjodzi idzi dzinogona kuita kuti mvura irasikirwe nekuchena kwayo, kukonzeresa tsvina mupombi yetsvina, kutakura tsvina ine muchetura yakawanda kubva mumarara, uye kutakura makemikari anosanganiswa nawo mumvura. Izvi zvinokonzeresa zvinogona kuve zvakakomba, asi hazviwanzo kuitika saka handizvo honzeri huru yekuderera kwemhando yemvura pasi rose.

migumisiro yekusvibiswa kwemvura
Kusvibiswa kwenzvimbo yemvura nekuda kwezvikonzero zvevanhu

Kusvibiswa kwemvura kwekwakabva nevanhu: maitiro ekuburitsa zvinhu zvine chepfu zvakanyanya mumhando yemvura yakaita semumba, maindasitiri, ekurima nemarara emumigwagwa munzvimbo yemvura. Kunyanya, kana mvura yepasi painoyerera nemumarara emumba, tsvina yemumaindasitiri, uye zvinosvibisa pasi, zvinopinda muvhu zvonyungudika mumvura yepasi zvoita kuti zvisvibiswe.

Pamusoro pezvo, kana hurongwa hwekusimudzira maindasitiri nekuvandudzwa kwechimanjemanje huchikura, makambani, mafekitari, mafekitari ... anorasa tsvina zvakananga, tsvina yemumaindasitiri inopararira kunzizi, hova, madziva, nenyika. Izvi zvinoshandura zvakananga chimiro chetsime remvura, zvichiita kuti mvura yakachena ive yakasvibiswa uye isingashandisike.

Mhando dzekusvibiswa kwemvura?

Kusvibiswa kwemvura yekunwa

Mvura yakashata inogadzirwa mudzimba, zvipatara, mahotera, uye zvikoro, ine tsvina mumabasa avanhu noutsanana, kana ikasabatwa zvakanaka, ichasvibiswa. Shanduko yekuumbwa uye kunaka kwemvura nekuda kwekusvibiswa hakuzadzise zvinangwa zvekushandiswa kwemvura mudzimba dzevanhu sekugeza, kuwacha, kubika, kuwacha, hutsanana.

Kusvibiswa kwemvura yekurima

Kukura kwechirimwa kunoratidzwa zvikuru kuburikidza nekushandiswa kwemishonga yakawanda nefetereza yemakemikari. Izvi zvinowedzera njodzi yekusvibiswa kwevhu, zvichikonzera zvisina kunanga kusvibiswa kwemvura yepasi.

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Kufudza mvura kunokonzerawo kusvibiswa kwemvura yekurima nekuti kuwanda kwekudya kwehove pamwe nezvinosara kubva mukurima kwemvura zvaderedza kunaka kwemvura pamwe chete nemasarira emishonga inorwisa mabhakitiriya, mishonga inouraya fungi uye mishonga yekugezesa.

Kusvibiswa kwemvura mumaindasitiri

Mvura yakasviba kumafekitari, nzvimbo dzekugadzira maindasitiri... ine makemikari akawanda ane chepfu inova ndiyo inonyanya kukonzera kusvibiswa kwemvura yakachena. Semuenzaniso, mvura yetsvina inobva mumafekitari ekugadzira chikafu inowanzova nezvakawanda zvezvinhu zvipenyu, nepo mvura yetsvina inobva munzvimbo dzematehwe ine simbi inorema uye sulfides mukuwedzera kune organic zvinhu. Kunyange zvazvo yakarapwa kare, mazhinji emafekitari haasati ave nechokwadi chezviratidzo zvakarurama, kana nokuda kwekuchengetedza mari, akarasira iyi mvura yakasviba yakananga mumhoteredzo, ichisvibisa mvura, ivhu nemhoteredzo. kusvibiswa kwemhepo

Kunze kwezvo, indasitiri yeoiri inokonzeresa kusvibiswa kwakanyanya kumvura yegungwa mumakungwa ese. Zviitiko zvemigodhi zvinokonzeresa kukukurwa kwevhu, kuderera kwevhu, kurasika kwezvisikwa zvakasiyana-siyana, uye kusvibiswa kwemvura yepasi nekuda kwemakemikari anobva mukugadzirwa kwematombo.

Kusvibiswa kwemvura yezvokurapa

Parizvino, kuunganidzwa kwemvura yetsvina uye nzira dzekurapa dzezvipatara zvakawanda zvave kuderedzwa uye kushanda zvine mwero. Kurongeka uye kurapwa kwemvura yetsvina yekurapa haina kunyatsove, yakaburitswa yakananga munzvimbo, zvichikonzera kusvibiswa kwakakomba kune ivhu uye nharaunda yekugara kwevanhu. Izvi zvinosvibisa hazviiti chete zvakananga mvura yemadziva, madziva nenzizi, asiwo inopinda muvhu uye inoungana mumvura yepasi. Mvura ine tsvina ine utachiona hwepathogenic hunogona kukonzera zvirwere kuvanhu nemhuka kuburikidza nemvura nemiriwo zvinodiridzwa nemvura ine tsvina.

Migumisiro yekusvibiswa kwemvura?

Impact pane zvakatipoteredza

Pane kushomeka kwakanyanya kwemvura yakachena apo pari zvino vanhu vanosvika bhiriyoni imwe nemazana maviri pasi rose havawani mvura yakachena. Vanhu vanosvika mabhiriyoni maviri nemazana manomwe vachashaya mvura kamwechete pagore. 

Mukuwedzera, gore rimwe nerimwe, anenge matani ane mamiriyoni 50 etsvina yakaoma anorasirwa mumvura yenyika, kubatanidza ivhu, jecha, marara, zvisaririra zvokuvakisa, zvinhu zvinobudisa mwaranzi, zvichiparira migumisiro yakakomba yakawanda yakadai se:

Zvinokanganisa zvipenyu zvemumvura

Kusvibiswa kwemvura kunokanganisa zvakananga zvipenyu zvemvura, kunyanya nzizi, nekuti mvura inonyanya kukanganiswa nekusvibiswa. Zvisikwa zvakawanda zvemumvura nekutora zvinhu zvine chepfu mumvura, nekufamba kwenguva, zvinokonzeresa shanduko mumuviri wezvipenyu zvakawanda zvemumvura, pane dzimwe nguva zvichikonzera shanduko.

Kuderedza kusiyana-siyana kwezvinhu zvipenyu zvemumvura, kuparadza uye kukonzera kutsakatika kwemamwe marudzi ezvipenyu nehove dzemugungwa pedyo nemahombekombe.

Kurasikirwa kwerunako, zvichikonzera kukanganisa kwakanyanya kumari yeindasitiri yekushanya

Iyo sediments inomiswa mumvura yepamusoro, tsvina inorema inogara pasi perwizi, mushure mekuparara, chikamu chechinhu chinopedzwa nezvisikwa. Izvi zvine kukanganisa kwakanyanya kune aesthetics yemaguta, kunaka kwemvura uye miti munzvimbo.

Kukuvadzwa kwemichina, midziyo yekuchera zviwanikwa uye kutakura mvura.

Mvura yeVietnam imakungwa akavhurika anobatanidza Pacific neIndian Oceans, uye ndeimwe yematemo emugungwa ane huwandu hukuru hwemotokari, iyo makumi manomwe muzana imota dzemafuta. Kunyanya, kuraswa kwemafuta ane huwandu hwe70 - 7 matani anowanzo kunyudzwa zvakanyanya nekuda kwezvikepe zvinomhanya pasi. Uye kurasika kweoiri ine huwandu hunopfuura matani 700 kunonyanya kukonzerwa nekutakurwa kweoiri uye kubonderana kwengarava mugungwa. Chiitiko chekudonha kweoiri hachikonzeri chete mafungu matema, asi zvakare chinokuvadza michina nemidziyo yekubvisa zviwanikwa uye kutakura kwemvura.

Ita kuti zviitike zvinoshamisa 

Black tide phenomenon: Chiitiko ichi chinoreva kurasika kwemafuta emugungwa, zvinhu zvisiri pamutemo zvinopinzwa zvisiri pamutemo, zvichikonzera kudonha kwakanyanya kwemvura uye kufa kwehove zhinji. MaHydrocarbons ndiwo anonyanya kusvibisa mumakungwa nemumikova. Ngarava dzemafuta dzakaputsika dzakakonzera mafungu matema anotyisa.

Black tide phenomenon nekuda kwekusvibiswa kwemvura

Inokonzeresa red tide: Kuwedzeredza kweindasitiri yemazuvano kwakonzera kukanganisa kwakakomba kwezvakatipoteredza, kushandura ecosystem yegungwa. Mvura ine tsvina ine muchetura inoita kuti algae dziwande nekukurumidza mumvura uye inokonzera pamusoro pemvura kuve nemakore kana kushanduka, inogona kuva yepepuru, pink, yebhuruu kana tsvuku. Zvichienderana nerudzi rwealgae, mafungu matsvuku anogona kubudisa chepfu yepanyama, kupedza oksijeni uye kukonzera zvimwe zvinokuvadza.

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Red tide nekuda kwe algae properties yakachinja

Health photo

Vanhu vanogara munzvimbo dzine mvura ine tsvina vachange vari panjodzi yezvirwere zvakawanda zvine njodzi nekuda kwekushandisa mvura yakasviba muzviitwa zvese zvakaita se:

Kushandisa arsenic-yakasvibiswa mvura kudya nekunwa, vanhu vanogona kubatwa negomarara umo kazhinji kenza yeganda. Panguva imwe cheteyo, mvura yakasviba inopinzawo chepfu mugadziriro yeropa, ichiisa upenyu hwomurwere mungozi. 

Mvura yakasvibiswa nemutobvu nesarufa kwenguva yakareba inogona kukonzera zvirwere zveitsvo netsinga. Kusvibiswa kwemakemikari ane chepfu akadai seammonium, nitrate anogona kukonzera cyanosis, anemia uye kenza. 

Yakawandisa sodium mumvura inogona kukonzera BP uye chirwere chemoyo.

Mvura yakasvibiswa ine mishonga yakawanda yezvipembenene, mishonga yezvipembenene, mishonga yesora.. inogona kukonzera chepfu, hepatitis, kurutsa.

Mukuwedzera, maererano nekutsvakurudza, vana vanogara pedyo nemvura ine fluorinated vachava neIQ yakaderera kupfuura vana mune dzimwe nzvimbo.

Zvirwere zvakajairika zvinokonzerwa nekusvibiswa kwemvura

Mhedzisiro yakajairika yekusvibiswa kwemvura kuwedzera kwehuwandu hwevanhu vanotambura nezvirwere zvakakomba uye zvisingaperi zvine chekuita nekusvibiswa kwemvura senge dermatitis, kugaya, manyoka uye njodzi yegomarara. Nemumiririri wega wega, mamiriro echirwere anozonyatso siyanisa se: 

Ngozi dzinokonzerwa neBiological agents:

Kusvibiswa kwemvura kunoita kuti zvikwanise kutapurira zvirwere kuvanhu kuburikidza nekudya uye mvura yekunwa yakadai sekorera, dysentery, typhoid, helminths ... kusangana kunokonzera dermatitis, scabies, Leptospira chirwere.

Ngozi kubva kumakemikari nemwaranzi:

Vanhu nemhuka vanodya zvakananga pamvura ine utachiona, kana kudya zvokudya zvine mercury, mishonga yezvipembenene, arsenic, uye mutobvu, zvichitungamirira kuzvirwere zvakakomba zvakadai sekenza, utachiona.

Heavy metals mumvura inokonzera marwadzo mutsinga, itsvo, excretory system, bone kuzvimba, anemia.

Migumisiro yekusvibiswa kwemvura pamiti

Kunyanya kushandiswa kwemishonga yemakemikari, fetereza nemishonga yekuuraya zvipembenene mukugadzirwa kwekurima gore negore kuchakonzera kusvibiswa kwemvura kwakakomba. Kudiridza zvirimwa nemvura ine tsvina kuchaita kuti chirimwa chisakwanise kukura, kunyange kufa kwevanhu vakawanda, zvichikonzera kukanganisa kwevanhu nemidziyo. Izvi zvinogona kuuraya mhuka nezvirimwa zvakawanda, uye makemikari ane chepfu anogonawo kupinda mumvura yekunwa achikonzera chepfu.

Semuenzaniso, miti yemichero inowanzonyanya kunetseka kune kuchinja kwemamiriro ezvinhu. Miti yemichero inogara mumamiriro ekusvibiswa kwemashizha inogona kukonzera kupera kwemashizha. Mvura yemvura inokwira kubva munzvimbo dzakasvibiswa, mushure mokuumba makore, inokonzera mvura ine acid, iyo inouraya tupukanana tunobatsira muvhu uye kuparadza zvirimwa. 

Matanho ekukunda kusvibiswa kwemvura

Gadzirisai kubva mugwaro reHurumende

Zvimwe chete ne kusvibiswa kweruzha, Nyika isimba rehuropi rekudzora kubuda kwemvura munzvimbo uye kutsvaga mhinduro dzekudzikisa huwandu hwemvura yakaraswa inoburitswa mumhepo zuva nezuva. Kubva ipapo, zvinodiwa kuti State tsvakurudzo, kuwedzera uye kururamisa zvikanganiso ari ano pamutemo gadziriro pamusoro mvura zvakatipoteredza kuraswa kudzora, uye panguva imwe chete vanofanira kuramba kuwedzera mari muzvivako zvokuvakisa.Drainage.

Mhinduro dzekudzivirira kusvibiswa kwemvura:

  • Zvemabhizimusi mayuniti: Kuburitsa mutemo 
  • Zvinhu zvekuteerera pakurapa kusvibiswa kwemvura:
  • Policy yekuunganidza uye kurapwa kwemvura yetsvina yemumba uye tsvina kubva kumaindasitiri nemabasa ekurima.
  • Mitemo pamusoro pekugadziriswa kwemvura yetsvina mumafekitori nemabhizinesi isati yaburitswa mukati menharaunda inoda kurapwa nemazvo uye zvichiteerana nemirau.
  • Simbisa kuongorora, kuongorora uye kubata zvakasimba masangano anotyora mutemo wekuchengetedza kwezvakatipoteredza
  • Pamusoro pezvo, nyika inofanirwa kujoinha mitemo yepasi rose kutonga makungwa, senge 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (yakasainwa nenyika dzinopfuura zana nemakumi maviri), London Convention ye120, The 1972 MARPOL International Convention ye Kudzivirirwa kweKusvibiswa kweZvikepe uye 1978 OSPAR Kokorodzano yeKudzivirirwa kweMarine Environment yeNortheast Atlantic.

Kune vanhu: propaganda, dzidzo

Hurumende inoda kusimbaradza mashoko anoparadzirwa kuitira kuti vanhu vazive nezvekutora chikamu mukuchengetedzwa kwemhoteredzo nekuchengetedza zviwanikwa zvemvura. Propaganda mudzidzo inofanirwa kushandiswa kune vakawanda vakasiyana vateereri kubva kuvana vekireshi, vadzidzi, vadzidzi, vanhu vanoshanda, vakwegura, kuvaratidza zvakajeka migumisiro inokuvadza yekusvibiswa kwemvura nemigumisiro yayo. basa mukuchengetedza nekuchengetedza nharaunda.

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Kunze kwedzidzo, panofanira kuve nemabasa anoshanda ekutora chikamu mukuchengetedza nharaunda yemvura sekunhonga marara kumativi edhamu, kwete kurasa marara mugungwa. Kune avo vanoshanda mumunda wezvakatipoteredza, zvinogara zvichidikanwa kuti uongorore uye uedze nzira nyowani dzekuchenesa mvura yetsvina kuitira kushandiswa kwakakura.

Igadzirise kubva mukuziva kwevanhu

Inoitwa mudzimba

  • Zvakakosha kusimudzira ruzivo rwekuchengetedzwa kwezvakatipoteredza, kurasa marara maererano nemitemo. Usarasira marara usingasaruri.
  • Waste classification: tsvina inosanganiswa, tsvina inogadziriswa, uye tsvina ine ngozi. Bvisa nzvimbo dzakatemerwa
  • Deredza kushandiswa kwemishonga yekugezera kana uchibata nemadhiraini akavharika.
  • Deredzai kushandiswa kwemabhegi epurasitiki, ega-shandisa zvigadzirwa zvepurasitiki mumabasa ezuva nezuva
  • Unganidza marara emumba, rongedza uye bvisa tsvina pamba, bvisa marara panzvimbo yakakodzera, usakanda marara mumadhamu, madziva kana nzizi. 
  • Usadira girizi kana mafuta pasi singi. Panzvimbo pezvo, zvidururire mumudziyo wokuunganidzira uye uzvirase semarara
  • Deredza kushandiswa kwemakemikari ekuchenesa
  • Kuderedza kushandiswa kwemishonga yesora, mishonga yezvipembenene nefetereza mukurima
  • Usakanda marara mumadziva, madziva, hova, nzizi, nyanza...
  • Shandisa mvura zvine mwero uye nemazvo
  • Shandisa eco-hushamwari zvigadzirwa

Yakagadzirwa kubva kunzvimbo dzekugara

  • Kusimbisa zviitiko zvekuchera, kuchenesa masiweji, kurapa kusvibiswa kwezvakatipoteredza mumadhamu nemadziva, nezvimwe kuvandudza zvitubu zvemvura zvakasvibiswa munzvimbo dzekugara.
  • Ranga zvakasimba kukanganisa kunosvibisa nharaunda. Kudzivisa vanotyora mutemo.
  • Dyara miti yakawanda kuderedza kukukurwa kwevhu uye kudzivirira zvinhu zvinokuvadza nemakemikari kupinda mumvura

Inoshandiswa mumasangano, zvikoro

  • Ronga zviitiko zvemunharaunda kuti ukunde kusvibiswa kwemvura
  • Kurudzira propaganda yezvakatipoteredza uye dzidzo munharaunda uye muzvikoro kusimudzira ruzivo uye ruzivo rwekuchengetedza kuchengetedzwa kwezvakatipoteredza pakati pevadzidzi, vadzidzi nevanhu.
  • Ronga zvimwe zviitiko zvekuchengetedza kwezvakatipoteredza nemarara akadzokororwa uye akaraswa. Gadzira zvinopfuura masirogani akanaka ekuchengetedza nharaunda. Sekudzidzisa vana vadiki kuti vazive nzira yekurasira marara panzvimbo yakakodzera uye mashandisirwo ezviraswa zvakaraswa. Semagaba emvura, mabhodhoro epurasitiki, waya dzemhangura, marara mapepa, mamvemve, nezvimwe.
  • Kune zvitubu zvemvura zvakambosvibiswa, zvinodikanwa kutsvaga nzira ye "kumutsidzira" uye nekuvandudza ecosystem yakatenderedza.

Inoitwa munzvimbo dzemaindasitiri

  • Kushandisazve mafuta emotokari kunoderedza zvakanyanya kuwanda kwemafuta anoburitswa munzvimbo
  • Deredza kushandiswa kwezvinhu zvepurasitiki zvakaita semakapu epurasitiki, mabhokisi epurasitiki, mashanga epurasitiki, zvipunu zvepurasitiki ...
  • Mvura yetsvina yemumba, tsvina netsvina yezvipfuyo inoda kugadzirwa isati yaraswa. 

Kuronga mabasa mukuchengetedza nekukunda kusvibiswa kwemvura kumba nekune dzimwe nyika

Kuronga mabasa ekurwisa kusvibiswa kwenzvimbo yemvura kunze kwenyika

UNEP: Iri isangano reUnited Nations system rakagadzwa kuti ripe nhungamiro uye zvirongwa zvekuita pasi rose kusimudzira hupenyu pasina kukuvadza chizvarwa chinotevera, kuchengetedza nharaunda yemvura. UNEP ichapa mitemo yezvinangwa zvekubatanidza; inopa mazano ehunyanzvi, ezvemitemo uye ezvesangano kuhurumende kuwedzera kugona kwemasangano uye zvirongwa zvebudiriro.

Conservation International (CI): isangano rinoshanda pasi rose nechinangwa chekuvandudza hutano hwevanhu, nekutarisa zvakanyanya pane akakosha masevhisi anopihwa. CI nderimwe remasangano akanyanya kukosha muchirongwa cheGEF, vachishandisa sainzi uye ruzivo mumhinduro kugadzirisa kusimba kwezvakatipoteredza uye kuderedza. Kuchinja Kwemamiriro ekunze, kuderedzwa kwevhu uye zviwanikwa zvemvura zvepasi rose.

Ronga mabasa ekurwisa kusvibiswa kwemvura munyika yedu

Ho Chi Minh City Environmental Protection Fund - HEPF ine basa guru rekupa rubatsiro rwemari kuvanhu, masangano uye mabhizinesi emapato ese ehupfumi ane zvirongwa, mapurojekiti uye zviitiko zvekuchengetedza zvakatipoteredza, kuchengetedza kwezvakatipoteredza, kuchengetedza zvisikwa, kupatsanura marara panzvimbo. .. muHo Chi Minh City.

SAVE OUR SEA isangano rezvakatipoteredza risingabatsiri rakavambwa muna 2018, nechishuwo chekuchengetedza kuchena kwenzvimbo yegungwa pamberi pedambudziko riripo rekusvibiswa kwezvakatipoteredza nemhedzisiro yaro. Sangano rinotarisa zvakanyanya munzvimbo mbiri: kushandiswa kwemarara epurasitiki uye panguva imwechete inoronga dzidzo yekusimudzira ruzivo rwezvakatipoteredza nevanhu vari munzvimbo dzegungwa.

Kuchengetedza mvura yakachena kwakakosha pakurarama kune hutano. Naizvozvo, kuitira kuchengetedza matsime emvura, zvinodikanwa kubatana maoko ehurongwa hwese hwezvematongerwo enyika, nhanho dzese, zvikamu uye vanhu vese, kuchengetedza matsime emvura ndiko kuchengetedza hupenyu hwedu pachedu.

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