Miyero yekuchera makomba enheyo uye nzira dzekuvaka

Dice gomba ndiro danho rokutanga musati matanga basa rokuvaka chivako chimwe nechimwe. Iri idanho rakakosha zvakanyanya sezvo richibata zvakananga chimiro uye kusimba kwechivako. Saka ndeipi mwero wekuchera gomba renheyo? Ndeapi matanho ekuvaka aripo? Ngatizvitsvage kubudikidza nechinyorwa chino.

Chinangwa chekuchera gomba renheyo ndechei?

Usati waenderera mberi nekuvaka kweprojekti yega yega. Makondirakiti ekuvaka achaitisa kuchera uye kuenzana kwemakomba enheyo. Kucherwa kwegomba renheyo kuchaunza zvikomborero zvakawanda zvakadai se:

  • Kufambisa kuvakwa kwekuvaka uye kuvaka nheyo
  • Iva nechokwadi chekutakura kukwanisa kwechivako chose pasi
  • Ita shuwa kuti nheyo dzakavakwa zvinoenderana nekuvaka dhizaini yekudhirowa zviyero
  • Deredza kusaenzana kuderera pakati penheyo
  • Bvisa zvinhu zvisina kukodzera, kana mamiriro kubva pasi penheyo. Kubva ipapo, dzivisa kukanganisa chimiro chenheyo inotakura mutoro wechivako.

Nokudaro, kuchera uye kuenzana kwenheyo kunoda kuitwa zvakanyatsonaka uye zvakasimba kuti zvive nechokwadi chokuti hapana zvinhu zvinokuvadza zvinokanganisa nheyo yeimba.

mitemo yekuchera nheyo dzemakomba
Makomba enheyo anobatsira kuchengetedza nheyo yenheyo uye chivakwa

Mitemo yekuchera makomba

Nekuti ine mhedzisiro yakakosha pachimiro chechivako. Makondirakiti anofanirwa kuve nemaitiro ekuchera makomba kuti ave nechokwadi chekuchengetedzwa pamwe nechimiro chebasa.

Mitemo yekuchera nheyo dzemakomba mukuvaka

Iva nechokwadi chekuita basa rekuvaka rakakodzera

Usati wavaka uye kuvaka, chera makomba enheyo yeimba. Izvo zvinodikanwa kuita clearance yezvipingamupinyi munzvimbo yekuvaka. Kusanganisira: zvidhinha, matombo, miti iri mumamiriro ezvinhu eimba inofanira kuputswa….Izvi zvinogadzira mamiriro akanaka ekuvaka makomba ekuchera.

Kana basa racho riine zvimiro zvakakosha zvinoda kuti vashandi vashande pazasi penheyo. Zvadaro, diki chinhambwe pakati nheyo gomba rusvingo uye Chimiro chenheyo inofanira kuva yakakura kudarika 0.7m.

Zviyero uye zvakatemwa zvenheyo gomba zviyero

Kufara kwepasi 2-storey imba ice hwaro Iyo imwechete yakazvimiririra hwaro inofanira kunge yakaenzana nehupamhi hwechimiro pamwe chete nejira rine hunyoro-uchapupu basa. Mukuwedzera, chinhambwe chekuisa hwaro formwork nezvibatiso uye kuwedzera ne 0.2m

Pakuchera gomba rekutanga repurojekiti. Izvo zvinodikanwa kusiya chikamu chekudzivirira. Ichi chidziviriro chekudzivirira chine simba rekupikisa kuparadzwa uye kupinda kwezvinhu zvakasikwa zvakadai semvura, mhepo, kutonhora ... Kusvikira kuvakwa kuchiitwa, chidziviriro chekudzivirira chinofanira kubviswa.

mitemo yekuchera nheyo dzemakomba

Izvo zvinodikanwa kuve nechokwadi zviyero zvehukuru uye zvakatemwa kugadzira mamiriro akanaka ekuvaka 1 nzira ice chipikiri kana 2 nzira

Ita shuwa nezve mamiriro ekumashure, yakatenderedza nharaunda magadzirirwo

Nemakomba chipikiri chimwe chete ane madziro akatwasuka uye haana kusimbiswa kwenguva pfupi. Panguva ino, nguva yekuvaka nheyo inoda kupfupiswa zvakanyanya sezvinobvira. Pamusoro pezvo, mugadziri wekondirakiti anofanira kuisa zviratidzo zvengozi kana kucherwa kuchiitwa munzvimbo dzine vanhu nemotokari dziri mumugwagwa.

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Panyaya yekuchera gomba renheyo pavhu rakapfava. Makondirakiti kana vavaki havafanire kuchera zvakadzika mukati mekugadzira maitiro. Kana nyika yasanganiswa nematombo nematombo ane nherera. Chikamu chekuchera chakanyanya kukwirisa mukugadzirisa maitiro chinofanira kubhadharwa nezvinhu zvemhando imwechete kana jecha, matombo ...

Mukuwedzera, zvakakosha kuvaka masisitimu ekuita drainage mumvura yepasi uye pamusoro pemvura pamberi pekuchera makomba enheyo. Iyo dhizaini inodzivirira mvura kuti isapinda mugomba rekutanga rebasa, zvichiita kuti kuvaka kunonoke pamwe nekukanganisa pasi. Zvichienderana nemhando yebasa uye mamiriro ezvinhu epanyika, dhizaini yemvura inogadzirwa kuti ive yakanyatsokodzera.

Apo gomba renheyo riri pasi pemvura yepasi. Makondirakiti ekuvaka anofanirwa kugadzira uye kupa mazano ekubatsira kudzikisa huwandu hwemvura yepasi. Zvinokwanisika kushandisa pasi pevhu, migero yakazaruka. Kana kuronga matsime ari pakadzika muaquifer wobva wapomba nguva nenguva kudzikisa mwero wemvura yepasi.

Kana hwaro gomba riri pedyo kana kudzika kupfuura nheyo pamusoro pemabasa ari pedyo. Makondirakiti anofanirwa kutora matanho ekudzivirira kudzikira uye kutevedzera tekinoroji maitiro. Nekudaro kudzikisira nekudzivirira deformation kune zvakavakidzana zvivakwa zvakatenderedza. Zvichienderana nenyaya imwe neimwe, mugadziri anofanira kunge aine mifananidzo yekuvaka kwavari.

Chiyero chevhoriyamu yekuchera

Pamusoro pezviyero zviri pamusoro zvekuchera makomba. Chiyero chehuwandu hwevhu huchacherwa kuti zvivakwe 3-storey imba ice hwaro inofanirawo kucherechedzwa. Iyo yakajairwa kuverenga kwevhoriyamu ichakubatsira iwe kuwana yakanyanya kugadzirira maererano nemari yebasa kana uchichera makomba. Zvichienderana nechimiro chegomba renheyo, vhoriyamu yekuchera inogona kunge yakasiyana, pamwe nekuverengwa kwevhoriyamu. Kunyange zvakadaro, unogona kushandisa fomura inotevera kuverenga huwandu hwevhu richacherwa:

V= H x (S1+S2+ SQRT (NYIKA)1xS2))

Mukati:

  • V: Kuwanda kwevhu rakacherwa
  • H: Kureba kwegomba
  • S2: Nzvimbo yepasi diki
  • S1: Nzvimbo huru yepasi
  • SQRT (NYIKA)1xS2): Square midzi yechigadzirwa pakati peS1 uye WILL2
kuvaka nzira dzekuchera gomba renheyo
Kuverenga huwandu hwevhu kuchera hwaro kunobatsira muzvinashawo kuti averenge mutengo unodiwa

Kuverenga huwandu hwevhu rinocherwa kunobatsira mubhadharisi kuona mari yekushandisa pakuita. Nekudaro, mune dzimwe nguva, huwandu hwevhu hwakabhadharwa huchasiyana kubva kune yakaverengerwa vhoriyamu yakacherwa senge:

Kuchera gomba rekutanga rechivako uchishandisa mirwi yemapepa kana mhete yekukomba

Nemakomba ehwaro uchishandisa mapepa mirwi kana akavharirwa. Kuwanda kwevhu kucherwa kunofanirwa kutariswa nehuwandu huri mukati memukombe. Panguva imwecheteyo, muganho wegomba unotarirwa nekukwirira kwepasi kwehwaro hwenheyo. Kana kukwidziridzwa kwekongiri yakavhara pasi nevhu rechisikigo. Mukuwedzera, chinhambwe kubva pamadziro ediaphragm kana murwi wepepa kusvika kumucheto kwechimiro hachifanirwe kunge chiri kupfuura 1.5m. Kunze kwenyaya yakataurwa mukudhirowa kwekuvaka. Kana nemvumo yekubvunza mainjiniya.

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Kuchera makomba ehwaro mumakomba akashama kana panyika

Muchiitiko ichi, ivhu revhu rakacherwa rinofanirwa kugadziriswa rakaenzana nehuwandu hwehuwandu hwevhu hwakasungwa nepamusoro pekukwirira kwenheyo yehwaro nehupamhi hwepamusoro panzvimbo yechisikigo pasi uye ndege yedenga rakacherwa. Mukuwedzera, zviyero zvepasi pevhu rekuchera zvichave zvakaenzana neaya anoratidzwa mumifananidzo yakagamuchirwa yekugadzira.

Pamusoro pezvo, vhoriyamu yekudzosera kumashure gomba rekutanga kune yekutanga nzvimbo yekusimudza ichaverengerwa pane yakacherwa vhoriyamu kubvisa vhoriyamu yeyakagarwa nheyo chimiro.

Manotsi ekuziva nezve chivharo chekuchera chehwaro gomba

Mushure mekuita maitiro hwaro pavhu risina simba. Huwandu hwevhu hwakadzoserwa kugomba renheyo hunoverengerwa se: vhoriyamu yevhu rakacherwa kubvisa huwandu hweiyo yakagarwa hwaro chimiro.

Kana kondirakiti achizvipira kuzadza nzvimbo nevhu, achachera gomba rekutanga rebasa remangwana. Iyo ivhu haibhadharwe na investor. Pamwe chete nazvo, vhoriyamu yakacherwa yenheyo yebasa ichabhadharwa, kusasanganisa mavhoriyamu evhu anotevera:

  • Huwandu hwevhu rakacherwa zvakadzika hunopfuura mirau yakasainwa
  • Mari yemuripo inodarika zvinodiwa. Nekuda kwemaitiro ekuvaka kwekontrakta achityaira mirwi, zvichikonzera kudonha kwevhu uye kudonha.

Kuvaka nzira dzekuchera nheyo dzemakomba

Kuita kuti basa rekuchera riende zvakanaka uye rinoenderana nemitemo. Mugadziri wekuvaka anofanira kutevedzera kutevedzana kwakarurama kwematanho munzira yekuvaka yekuchera gomba rekutanga. Matanho ekugadzira anoitwa sezvinotevera:

Danho 1: Gadzirira kuchera gomba rekutanga

Padanho rekutanga, kondirakiti inoda kugadzirira basa rese rinodiwa asati achera makomba akadai se:

  • Kubviswa kwenzvimbo dzekuvaka: miti, dzimba dzakaputswa. Inoda kutamiswa kusati kwatanga kuchera. Kufambisa kuvaka hwaro.
  • Shandisa zviyero zvemvura pamusoro uye pasi pevhu. Ita shuwa kuti hapana kudonha kwemvura kunoitika panguva yekuvaka.
  • Kugadzira mugwagwa wenguva pfupi wepurojekiti.
  • Kuisa uye kugadzirisa mold yebasa, kugadzira mamiriro akanaka maererano nemitemo yekuchera makomba.
  • Pamusoro pezvo, zadzisa zvinodiwa, izvo mapato maviri, investor uye kontrakta vakasaina muchibvumirano chakabvumidzwa.
kuchera uye kuvakwa kwegomba renheyo
Tora matanho ekubvisa gomba kuti buri raoma

Nhanho 2: Zvivakwa zvepasi, kuvakwa kwegomba rekutanga

Mushure mekuita kuti gadziriro dziitwe dzakakwana. Panguva iyi, mugadziri akatanga basa rekuchera ivhu rekuvaka gomba rekutanga. Padanho iri, pane 3 nhanho huru dzinosanganisira:

Danho 1: Kuenzanisa nzvimbo yebasa.

Muchikamu chekutanga, mugadziri achashandisa mabulldozer kuti aenzanise pasi. Kana chirongwa chine nzvimbo yakakura. Panguva iyoyo, mugadziri achashandisa scrapers uye bulldozer kushanda pamwechete. Mabulldozer achatarisira kudzosera kumashure uye kuchera. Muchina wetambo uchashandiswa kuenzanisa pasi uye nekutanga kubatanidza ivhu remakomba enheyo.

Tsanangura nzira yekuvaka yekuchera gomba rekutanga
Shandisa 1-bucket excavator kudzivirira kukanganisa nheyo yevhu chimiro.

Danho rechipiri: Kuchera ivhu mugomba renheyo

Mushure mechikamu chekutanga. Mukontrakta achangotanga kuenderera mberi nechikamu chechipiri: Kuchera gomba rekutanga. Kazhinji, kune marudzi manomwe akajairika evhu rekuvaka, anosanganisira: ivhu rejecha, ivhu rejecha, ivhu revhu, ivhu revhu, ivhu revhu rakasimba, ivhu rakasimba uye pakupedzisira ivhu revhu. Hudzamu huchacherwa huchasiyana zvichienderana nerudzi rwevhu. Hudzamu nehukuru hwegomba huchawanzoongororwa uye kutaurwa pachine nguva mukudhirowa kwekuvaka.

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Pamatanho matatu, iyi ndiyo nhanho yakakosha kana ichikanganisa chimiro uye hupenyu hwechivako chose gare gare. Naizvozvo, mugadziri wekondirakiti anofanirwa kutevedzera zviyero zvekuchera makomba.

Mamwe manyoro madiki panguva ino yekuteerera kune akadai se:

  • Inokurudzirwa kushandisa 1-bucket type excavator kudzivirira kukuvadza kana kukanganisa chimiro chenheyo ivhu.
  • Izvo zvinodiwa kuti usiye yakaonda yekudzivirira layer kuti urambe kuparadzwa uye cavitation yenzvimbo yakapoteredza.
  • Gomba renheyo rinofanira kuvakwa neine diagonal bevel kudzikamisa nzira yekudzikisa. Muchiitiko ichi, mugadziri anomanikidzwa kuvaka rusvingo rwakamira. Izvo zvinodikanwa kuita kusimbisa uye kutora mamwe matanho. Kana nekuda kwemamiriro evhu kana zvimwe zvinhu kontrakiti haigone kusimbisa. Panguva iyoyo, kuvaka faundesheni kunoda kupfupikiswa sezvinobvira.
  • Nemabasa ekuvaka munzvimbo dzine huwandu hwevanhu. Kana kuti urombo hwakapoteredza zvimiro zvezvivakwa. Izvo zvinodikanwa kuve nematanho ekudzivirira kukoromoka kwevhu, senge: anti-splash furemu, kudzvanya mirwi yesimbi, yekuchera primer....

Danho rechitatu: Kuzadza gomba

Mushure mekupedza chikamu chechipiri: Kuchera ivhu mugomba rekutanga. Mbiru dzenheyo dzichavakwa pakarepo. Panguva yekuvaka nheyo, mugadziri anofanira kuona kuti maburi evhu haaitike panguva yekuvaka nheyo. Kana nheyo yeimba yakanyatsogadzikana, iva nechokwadi chekusangana nemamiriro ezvinhu maererano nemifananidzo yekuvaka. Basa idzva rekuchera rakaitwa.

Zvichienderana nechiyero uye chimiro chenheyo uye basa, nguva inotorwa kuzadza gomba inosiyana. Kazhinji, nguva inotorwa kuzadza gomba hwaro ingangoita mavhiki maviri.

Mukuwedzera, pakuita kudzoka kwegomba renheyo. Kondirakiti inoda kuzadza gomba kusvika pakukwirira kwakaringana sekupihwa kwaakaitwa nemuridzi.

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